Abstract

A preliminary study of the synergism between active and passive spaceborne remote sensing systems has been conducted on the basis of new prospects for the implementation of lidar systems on space platforms for global scale measurements. Assuming a quasi-simultaneity in the measurements performed with an active backscatter lidar and with operational meteorological packages such as the Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS)-N Operational Vertical Sounder radiometers, it is shown that combining both measurements could lead to an improvement in the accuracy of the retrieved vertical temperature profile in the lower troposphere. We used a modified version of the improved initialization inversion operational algorithm, to process the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder data, taking into account the lidar measurements of cloud heights to define a temperature reference. New perspectives for the coupling of lidar and passive radiometers are discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).
  4. H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) on the Earth observing system,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, G. Mégie, “Tropospheric concentration of infrared absorbing molecules using a nadir-looking Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, Proc. SPIE2578, 148–153 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.
  15. D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Reading, M. L. Reynolds, eds., “The nine candidate Earth Explorer Mission, Earth Radiation Mission,” ESA SP-1196 (3) (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).
  17. P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).
  18. P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).
  19. A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).
  20. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  21. J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.
  22. S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Bayes, “An essay toward solving a problem in the doctrine of chance, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 53, 370–418 (1763), reprinted in Biometrika 45, 293–315 (1958).
  25. A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, “Initialization of the radiative transfer equation problem from a pattern recognition type approach: application to the satellites of the TIROS-N series,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods: proceedings of the workshop on advances in remote sensing retrieval methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, M. T. Chahine, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 495–515.
  27. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).
  29. S. C. Ou, K. N. Yiou, W. M. Gooch, Y. Takano, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7- and 10.9-μm channels,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2171–2180 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. N. Thépaut, P. Moll, “Variational inversion of simulated TOVS radiances using the adjoint techniques,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 116, 1425–1448 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1996

D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. N. Thépaut, P. Moll, “Variational inversion of simulated TOVS radiances using the adjoint techniques,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 116, 1425–1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

1985

S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

1976

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1763

T. Bayes, “An essay toward solving a problem in the doctrine of chance, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 53, 370–418 (1763), reprinted in Biometrika 45, 293–315 (1958).

Albers, F.

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

Ansmann, A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H. H.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) on the Earth observing system,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayes, T.

T. Bayes, “An essay toward solving a problem in the doctrine of chance, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 53, 370–418 (1763), reprinted in Biometrika 45, 293–315 (1958).

Beer, R.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boers, R.

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bouteyre, A. Dolfi

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

Brechet, J.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

Capps, R. W.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Carswell, A. I.

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cayla, F.

F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chahine, M. T.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Chalfant, M. W.

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, G. Mégie, “Tropospheric concentration of infrared absorbing molecules using a nadir-looking Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, Proc. SPIE2578, 148–153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, “Initialization of the radiative transfer equation problem from a pattern recognition type approach: application to the satellites of the TIROS-N series,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods: proceedings of the workshop on advances in remote sensing retrieval methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, M. T. Chahine, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 495–515.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

Chepfer, H.

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

Clerbaux, C.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, G. Mégie, “Tropospheric concentration of infrared absorbing molecules using a nadir-looking Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, Proc. SPIE2578, 148–153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Couch, R.

D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Courtier, P.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

Del Guasta, M.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DelGasta, M.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Desbois, M.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Doutriaux, M.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Drahos, H. F.

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W. L.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elouragini, S.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Flamant, C.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Flamant, P. H.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Fong, A.

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G. G.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glavich, T. A.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gooch, W. M.

Gordon, I.

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D. G.

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C. J.

S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, M.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haskins, R. D.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Hayden, M. C.

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Heymsfield, A. J.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. L.

H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Husson, N.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

Jäger, H.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Javelle, P.

F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, S. A.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaprieolev, B.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kolev, I.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Le Treut, H.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Lieutaud, F.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Liou, K. N.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

London, J.

S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Loth, C.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

Lu, D.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, P.

D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McMillin, L. M.

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Mégie, G.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, G. Mégie, “Tropospheric concentration of infrared absorbing molecules using a nadir-looking Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, Proc. SPIE2578, 148–153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) on the Earth observing system,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miloshevich, L. M.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mizumo, Y.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moll, P.

J. N. Thépaut, P. Moll, “Variational inversion of simulated TOVS radiances using the adjoint techniques,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 116, 1425–1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morandi, M.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moulinier, P.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Novak, C. S.

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O’Callaghan, F. G.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Ou, S. C.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Yiou, W. M. Gooch, Y. Takano, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7- and 10.9-μm channels,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2171–2180 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagano, R. J.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Pal, S. R.

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Piquad, J.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Priluba, I.

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, J.-L.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Rao, N. X.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, C. D.

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, L.

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

Schlindler, R. A.

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Scott, N.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

Scott, N. A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, “Initialization of the radiative transfer equation problem from a pattern recognition type approach: application to the satellites of the TIROS-N series,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods: proceedings of the workshop on advances in remote sensing retrieval methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, M. T. Chahine, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 495–515.

Sèze, G.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Shamanaev, V. S.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sitbon, P.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

Smith, W. L.

H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stefanutti, L.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Yiou, W. M. Gooch, Y. Takano, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7- and 10.9-μm channels,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2171–2180 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thepaut, J. N.

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

Thépaut, J. N.

J. N. Thépaut, P. Moll, “Variational inversion of simulated TOVS radiances using the adjoint techniques,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 116, 1425–1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, V.

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Uchino, O.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

Wahiche, C.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wark, D. Q.

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Warren, S. G.

S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H. M.

H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yiou, K. N.

Young, S. A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

W. L. Smith, M. C. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N operational vertical sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, D. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizumo, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The experimental cloud lidar pilot study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “Vertical resolution and accuracy of atmospheric infrared sounding spectrometers,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 265–274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, W. D. Hart, Cloud top liquid water from lidar observations of marine stratocumulus, J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Fong, S. R. Pal, I. Priluba, “Lidar-derived distributions of cloud vertical location and extent,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 107–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, A. Fong, “Lidar-derived cloud optical properties obtained during the ECLIPS Program,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2388–2399 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, S. A. Kane, “Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol.

S. G. Warren, C. J. Hahn, J. London, “Simultaneous occurrence of different cloud types,” J. Climat. and Appl. Meteorol. 24, 658–667 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. M. McMillin, D. G. Gray, H. F. Drahos, M. W. Chalfant, C. S. Novak, “Improvements in the accuracy of operational satellite soundings,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1948–1955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Piquad, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ocean Air Int.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, N. Husson, P. Sitbon, “The ‘3I’ procedure applied to the retrieval of meteorological and climate parameters from NOAA-7,” Ocean Air Int. 1, 29–42 (1986).

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

T. Bayes, “An essay toward solving a problem in the doctrine of chance, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 53, 370–418 (1763), reprinted in Biometrika 45, 293–315 (1958).

Proc. IEEE

D. M. Winker, R. Couch, P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s LIDAR In-SPACE technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

J. N. Thépaut, P. Moll, “Variational inversion of simulated TOVS radiances using the adjoint techniques,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 116, 1425–1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.

C. D. Rogers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, “Initialization of the radiative transfer equation problem from a pattern recognition type approach: application to the satellites of the TIROS-N series,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods: proceedings of the workshop on advances in remote sensing retrieval methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, M. T. Chahine, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 495–515.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

J. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. Le Treut, G. Sèze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies, assessment of the contribution to the spaceborne backscatter lidar WCRP,” ESA Final Rep. ESA contract AO/12668/92/NL/CL (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996), p. 137.

C. J. Reading, M. L. Reynolds, eds., “The nine candidate Earth Explorer Mission, Earth Radiation Mission,” ESA SP-1196 (3) (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, A. Dolfi Bouteyre, C. Loth, “Technical assistance for the provision of a data base on detection techniques for spaceborne lidar sensor,” Final Rep., ESTEC contract 7959/88/NL/PB (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990).

P. Chazette, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, A. Chedin, N. Scott, P. Courtier, J. N. Thepaut, “Etude du sondage de l’atmosphère par simulation des données provenant des instrumentations active lidar et passive radiomètre embarquées sur satellite,” Final Rep. ESTEC contract 8699/89/NL/BI (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1991).

L. Sauvage, H. Chepfer, V. Trouillet, P. H. Flamant, G. Brogniez, J. Pelon, F. Albers, “Remote sensing of cirrus radiative properties during EUCREX’94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part 1. Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev., to be published.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Chahine, F. G. O’Callaghan, H. H. Aumann, R. W. Capps, R. D. Haskins, R. J. Pagano, R. A. Schlindler, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)-science and measurement requirements,” NASA-TM-104977 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) on the Earth observing system,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, G. Mégie, “Tropospheric concentration of infrared absorbing molecules using a nadir-looking Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, Proc. SPIE2578, 148–153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the involved measurements to determine the RTP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical improvement in the temperature profile as obtained with a reference temperature point (located at ∼800 hPa) when compared with the classical 3I inversion for various pressure levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature profile improvement for the three types of air mass as a function of the pressure levels for a local layer of ±2 km near the reference temperature point (a) and for the extended temperature profile (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Improvement in the standard deviation of the temperature profile for the three types of air mass as a function of the pressure levels for a local layer of ±2 km near the reference temperature point (a) and for the extended temperature profile (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean sensitivity of the calculated local temperature improvement for two tropospheric regions as a function of the accuracy on the temperature at the cloud-top height.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Low-Level Cloud Occurrence Probability over Continent and Oceansa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Absolute Uncertainties on Temperature Vertical Profile with the 3I Inversion Procedure without RTP (3I) and with RTP (3I + RTP)a

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d om TB 2 = 1 2 N n = 1 N T B mm - T B on 2 σ n 2 first proximity recognition d om T 2 = 1 2 T o - T m 2 σ 2 second proximity recognition ,
σ T 2 = 1 L m = 1 L d om T 2 .
d om T < ξ σ T ,
I n - I 0 n = k = 1 K   A n k T k - T 0 k Δ p k ,
Δ I = A Δ T + E ,
Δ T = C T A t AC T A t + C E - 1 Δ I ,
C T i ,   l = 1 M m = 1 M T i m - T 0 T l - T 0 ,
T k = T 0 k + Δ T .
δ T ¯ = 1 N s N l i = 1 N s j = 1 N l | T 3 I ij - T ref ij | - | T RTP ij - T ref ij | σ T 2 = 1 N s N l i = 1 N s j = 1 N l | T 3 I ij - T ref ij | 2 - | T RTP ij - T ref ij | 2 ,

Metrics