Abstract

In atmospheric Fourier transform spectroscopy so-called microwindows are usually analyzed for retrieval of trace constituents rather than the spectrum as a whole. These microwindows, which are sets of consecutive spectral grid points, contain one or more prominent transitions of the target species, whereas it is desirable for the signal of interfering species to be minimum. An objective, quantitative method is presented to optimize the microwindow boundaries with respect to random errors, signal of interfering species, other parameter and systematic errors and to select optimum microwindows with respect to their associated retrieval errors. Case studies for N2O microwindows are performed for a spaceborne limb emission experiment to assess the dependence of the optimum microwindow width on the retrieval concept.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.
  20. Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (4)

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “The influence of atmospheric ozone using satellite horizon measurements in the 1042 cm-1 band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 2, 376–390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2, in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986).

Benner, D. Chris

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blatherwick, R. D.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blumenstock, Th.

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2, in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986).

Devi, V. Malathy

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drayson, S. R.

J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “The influence of atmospheric ozone using satellite horizon measurements in the 1042 cm-1 band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 2, 376–390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Echle, G.

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

Edwards, D. P.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

Farmer, C. B.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

Flaud, J.-M.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friedle, A.

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, O.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hase, F.

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2, in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986).

Kuang, D.

Kutepov, A. A.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambioth, J. J.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whiteman, J. J. Lambioth, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” NASA TN D-5252 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Laurent, J.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Linden, A.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

López-Puertas, M.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

López-Valverde, M. Á.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manuilowa, R. O.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Torres, F. J.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McKee, T. B.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whiteman, J. J. Lambioth, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” NASA TN D-5252 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Murcray, D. G.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. J.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. P.

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimization of high-spectral-resolution measurements,” in Optical and Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 136–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “The influence of atmospheric ozone using satellite horizon measurements in the 1042 cm-1 band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 2, 376–390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. S.

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2, in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986).

Shved, G. M.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, G. M.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

von Clarmann, T.

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

Wegner, A.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

Whiteman, R. I.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whiteman, J. J. Lambioth, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” NASA TN D-5252 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Yin, Q.

Zander, R.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zaragoza, G.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Opt. (3)

ESA Bull. (1)

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. Laurent, G. M. Stokes, “First infrared measurement of atmospheric NO2 from the ground,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 35–38 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, J. H. Park, R. H. Norton, J. M. Russell, O. P. Raper, “Detection of carbonyl fluoride in the stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 769–772 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757–760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

Th. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, F. Hase, P. Thomas, “Column amounts of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, and HF from groundbased FTIR measurements made near Kiruna, Sweden, in late winter 1994,” J. Atmos. Chem. 26, 311–321 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “The influence of atmospheric ozone using satellite horizon measurements in the 1042 cm-1 band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 2, 376–390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (5)

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 cm-1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 385–387 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. M. Shved, R. O. Manuilowa, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the MIPAS instrument in Envisat-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 377–403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Funke, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, “CO2 Q-branch line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 215–230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2, in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whiteman, J. J. Lambioth, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” NASA TN D-5252 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimization of high-spectral-resolution measurements,” in Optical and Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 136–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Random error as a function of microwindow width. The lower graph is the related spectrum of the target species N2O. In the case of a purely diagonal measurement covariance matrix, the random error of a certain microwindow is a monotonously decreasing function; i.e., inclusion of an additional spectral grid point never increases the retrieval random error (solid curve). In the case of a nondiagonal covariance matrix a border effect is observed that leads to a local minimum of the random retrieval error in the case of truncation of the microwindow at maximum signal (dashed curve). The correction as described in the text again leads to a sufficiently monotonously decreasing curve (dotted curve). The difference in random error between diagonal and nondiagonal measurement covariance matrices for small microwindows is explained by the coarser spectral grid that does not hit the line center in the case of uncorrelated errors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of optimum microwindow boundaries on the tolerance parameter ∊. Larger values of ∊ lead to wider microwindows. Microwindows as defined by experts would probably correspond to ∊ values of approximately 0.1%. All the microwindows that we found are shown by horizontal bars. Shaded bars correspond to microwindows related to a retrieval error of less than 20%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the optimum microwindow boundaries on the retrieval case for a tangent altitude of 35 km. Both the target gas spectrum and the complete atmospheric spectrum are shown. Single shading of the horizontal bars indicates retrieval errors of less than 10%, double shading corresponds to retrieval errors of less than 30%, and open bars relate to microwindows of higher retrieval error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the optimum microwindow boundaries on the retrieval case for a tangent altitude of 20 km. Both the target gas spectrum and the complete atmospheric spectrum are shown. Single shading of horizontal bars indicates retrieval errors of less than 10%, double shading corresponds to retrieval errors of less than 20%, and open bars relate to microwindows of higher retrieval error.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definitions of Test Cases

Tables Icon

Table 2 Total Retrieval Errors for Case 1

Tables Icon

Table 3 Selected Microwindows for Case 2.b

Tables Icon

Table 4 Optimum Sets of Microwindows for Case 2.c, 35-km Tangent Altitude

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S x = K T S y - 1 K - 1 ,
s i , j = NESR 2   k   Δ ν 2 AILS k × AILS k - abs i - j ,
S x = K T K - 1 K T S y K K T K - 1 ,
a m , i * = y m x i × n = m 1 m 2 AILS n , m n = - + AILS n , m .
Δ X j = Δ x 1 , j Δ x 2 , j Δ x i max , j = K T K - 1 × K T Y error , j - Y true ,
S j = Δ X j Δ X j T .
S y , j = B j T S j a   priori B j .
S j = K T S y , j - 1 K - 1 .
S l max = j j max   Δ x 1 , j 2 j j max   Δ x 1 , j j j max   Δ x i max , j j j max   Δ x 2 , j j j max   Δ x 1 , j j j max   Δ x 2 , j j j max   Δ x i max , j j j max   Δ x i max , j j j max   Δ x 1 , j j j max   Δ x i max , j 2 .
Δ x i = σ i 2 + l = 1 l max   Δ x i , l 2 + j = 1 j max Δ x i , j 2 1 / 2 ,
S total , n max = n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 - 1 + j = 1 j max n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 - 1 n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1   Δ X j , n × n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 - 1 n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 Δ X j , n T + n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 - 1 n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 l = 1 l max   Δ X l , n × n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 - 1 n = 1 n max   S x , n - 1 l = 1 l max   Δ X l , n T

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