Abstract

The luminescent quantum efficiency of Yb3+ ions in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is obtained by use of a method based on the simultaneous and multiwavelength measurement of photoacoustic and luminescent signals after modulated continuous laser excitation. The experimental results give a high value for the luminescence quantum efficiency (Φ = 0.90 ± 0.05), coincident with the predictions by the comparison between experimental and estimated radiative lifetimes.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 481–483 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. Román, J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1541–1543 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, S. Westenhofer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1695–1706 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Jones, J. P. de Sandro, M. Hempstead, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Large, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Wilkinson, “Channel waveguide laser at 1 μm in Yb-indiffused LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1477–1479 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–A306 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Miniscalco, R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Montoya, L. E. Bausá, “Thermal dependence of the optical properties of Yb3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” presented at the Fourth International School on Excited State of Transition Elements, Duzsniki Zdroj, Poland, 6–13 September 1997.
  10. J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy of luminescent solids: ruby,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3502–3509 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of radiationless transitions in Eu2+ ions in KCl crystals,” Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).
  12. R. S. Quimby, W. N. Yen, “Photoacoustic measurement of absolute quantum efficiencies in solids,” Opt. Lett. 3, 181–183 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Etxebarría, J. Fernández, “Photoacoustic spectra of transparent solids doped with localised absorbing centres,” J. Phys. C 16, 3803–3810 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).
  15. E. Rodriguez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Simultaneous multiple-wavelength photoacoustic and luminescence experiments: a method for fluorescent-quantum-efficiency determination,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14049–14053 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Rodriguez, L. Núñez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Quantum efficiency measurement in solids by photoacoustic and luminescence experiments,” J. Lumin. 58, 353–355 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. E. Braslavsky, K. Heihoff, “Photothermal methods,” in Handbook of Organic Photochemistry, J. C. Scaiano, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989), Chap. 14, pp. 327–355.
  18. G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Núñez, F. Cussó, “Polarized absorption and energy levels of LiNbO3:Tm and LiNbO3(MgO):Tm,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 5301–5312 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2483–2485 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. M. Gill, L. McCaughan, J. C. Wright, “Spectroscopic site determinations in erbium-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2334–2344 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, S. Westenhofer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1695–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, L. McCaughan, J. C. Wright, “Spectroscopic site determinations in erbium-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2334–2344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. Román, J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1541–1543 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).

E. Rodriguez, L. Núñez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Quantum efficiency measurement in solids by photoacoustic and luminescence experiments,” J. Lumin. 58, 353–355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2483–2485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Núñez, F. Cussó, “Polarized absorption and energy levels of LiNbO3:Tm and LiNbO3(MgO):Tm,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 5301–5312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Rodriguez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Simultaneous multiple-wavelength photoacoustic and luminescence experiments: a method for fluorescent-quantum-efficiency determination,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14049–14053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco, R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. Etxebarría, J. Fernández, “Photoacoustic spectra of transparent solids doped with localised absorbing centres,” J. Phys. C 16, 3803–3810 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978

1977

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy of luminescent solids: ruby,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3502–3509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of radiationless transitions in Eu2+ ions in KCl crystals,” Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aamodt, L. C.

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy of luminescent solids: ruby,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3502–3509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

Auzel, F.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).

Balda, R.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, S. Westenhofer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1695–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bausá, L. E.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Montoya, L. E. Bausá, “Thermal dependence of the optical properties of Yb3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” presented at the Fourth International School on Excited State of Transition Elements, Duzsniki Zdroj, Poland, 6–13 September 1997.

Boulon, G.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Braslavsky, S. E.

S. E. Braslavsky, K. Heihoff, “Photothermal methods,” in Handbook of Organic Photochemistry, J. C. Scaiano, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989), Chap. 14, pp. 327–355.

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, S. Westenhofer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1695–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Camarillo, E.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

Cussó, F.

E. Rodriguez, L. Núñez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Quantum efficiency measurement in solids by photoacoustic and luminescence experiments,” J. Lumin. 58, 353–355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Rodriguez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Simultaneous multiple-wavelength photoacoustic and luminescence experiments: a method for fluorescent-quantum-efficiency determination,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14049–14053 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Núñez, F. Cussó, “Polarized absorption and energy levels of LiNbO3:Tm and LiNbO3(MgO):Tm,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 5301–5312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. P.

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, S. Westenhofer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1695–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Etxebarría, J.

J. Etxebarría, J. Fernández, “Photoacoustic spectra of transparent solids doped with localised absorbing centres,” J. Phys. C 16, 3803–3810 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).

J. Etxebarría, J. Fernández, “Photoacoustic spectra of transparent solids doped with localised absorbing centres,” J. Phys. C 16, 3803–3810 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

García-Solé, J. A.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, L. McCaughan, J. C. Wright, “Spectroscopic site determinations in erbium-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2334–2344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2483–2485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grezes-Besset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

He, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heihoff, K.

S. E. Braslavsky, K. Heihoff, “Photothermal methods,” in Handbook of Organic Photochemistry, J. C. Scaiano, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989), Chap. 14, pp. 327–355.

Hempstead, M.

Jaque, F.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. K.

Lallier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Large, A. C.

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, A.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Macalik, B.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

D. M. Gill, L. McCaughan, J. C. Wright, “Spectroscopic site determinations in erbium-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2334–2344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, J. C. Wright, L. McCaughan, “Site characterization of rare-earth-doped LiNbO3 using total site selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2483–2485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mendioroz, A.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, J. Fernández, F. Auzel, “Quantum efficiency of 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ in ZBLAN and BIGaZYT fluoride glasses and in silica glass obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris) 4, C7-397–C7-400 (1994).

Merkle, L. D.

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of radiationless transitions in Eu2+ ions in KCl crystals,” Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

Miniscalco, W. J.

Monteil, A.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, F. Cussó, F. Jaque, J. A. Sanz-García, A. Monteil, B. Varrel, G. Boulon, J. A. García-Solé, “Site-selective spectroscopy of Nd3+ in LiNbO3:Nd and LiNbO3:Nd,Mg crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 482–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, E.

E. Montoya, L. E. Bausá, “Thermal dependence of the optical properties of Yb3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” presented at the Fourth International School on Excited State of Transition Elements, Duzsniki Zdroj, Poland, 6–13 September 1997.

Muñoz-Santiuste, J. E.

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. C.

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy of luminescent solids: ruby,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3502–3509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Núñez, L.

E. Rodriguez, L. Núñez, J. O. Tocho, F. Cussó, “Quantum efficiency measurement in solids by photoacoustic and luminescence experiments,” J. Lumin. 58, 353–355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. García-Solé, B. Macalik, L. E. Bausá, F. Cussó, E. Camarillo, A. Lorenzo, L. Núñez, F. Jaque, A. Monteil, G. Boulon, J. E. Muñoz-Santiuste, I. Vergara, “Optical detection of ion impurity sites in doped LiNbO3,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2010–2015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Núñez, F. Cussó, “Polarized absorption and energy levels of LiNbO3:Tm and LiNbO3(MgO):Tm,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 5301–5312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1491–1492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of radiationless transitions in Eu2+ ions in KCl crystals,” Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

Quimby, R. S.

Rodriguez, E.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarized absorption spectra of Yb3+ in LiNbO3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used for the simultaneous measurement of photoacoustic and luminescence spectra under polarized laser excitation. PZT, piezoelectric transducer; Si PD, silicon photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic energy-level structure of Yb3+ ions and transitions involved in the quantum efficiency determination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) PAS and LUMS spectra after laser excitation (σ polarization) tuned over the 2 F 7/22 F 5/2 transition of Yb3+ in LiNbO3. (b) PAS/LUMS ratio versus wavelength (solid curve) and least-squares fitting (dotted curve) according to Eq. (7).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PAS and LUMS spectra after laser excitation (π polarization) tuned over the 2 F 7/22 F 5/2 transition of Yb3+ in LiNbO3. (b) PAS/LUMS ratio versus wavelength (solid curve) and least-squares fitting (dotted curve) according to Eq. (7).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ = τ EXP / τ RAD .
g 1     v 2 σ A v d v = g 2     v 2 σ E v d v ,
1 / τ RAD = A 21 = 8 π n 2 / c 2     v 2 σ E v d v ,
H = W p hv E - E 21 n 1 + W 21 NR E 21 n 2 + W 21 R E 21 - hv F n 2 ,
v F = vI F v d v / I F v d v
d n 2 d t = - d n 1 d t = W p n 1 - n 2 τ 2 = σ I E hv E n 1 - n 2 τ 2 ,
PAS = C 1 σ I E 1 - Φ v F / v E n 1 .
LUMS = C 2 σ I E n 1 .
PAS / LUMS = C 1 - Φ v F / v E = C 1 - Φ λ E / λ F ,

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