Abstract

We have fabricated inorganic–organic nanocomposite bulk samples consisting of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and silica by in situ polymerization of a PPV salt monomer within a porous glass using a base-catalyzed polymerization reaction and subsequent heat treatment. The samples processed at temperatures above 200 °C showed a sharp reduction in fluorescence. Solid-state cavity lasing was achieved from the samples processed at 150 °C with optical efficiency as high as 11.4%. We report characteristic narrowing of the linewidth and the temporal profile.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, “Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982–1984 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Moses, “High quantum efficiency luminescence from a conducting polymer in solution: a novel polymer laser dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3215–3216 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).
  13. E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly (p-phenylene vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1408 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (5)

B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. Moses, “High quantum efficiency luminescence from a conducting polymer in solution: a novel polymer laser dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3215–3216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, “Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982–1984 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly (p-phenylene vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1408 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Avny, Y.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly (p-phenylene vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1408 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, “Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982–1984 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brouwer, H.-J.

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davidov, D.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B. L.

B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).

Díaz-García, M. A.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faraggi, E. Z.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gmeiner, J.

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hadziioannou, G.

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. C.

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, “Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982–1984 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herold, M.

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hilberer, A.

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karasz, F. E.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krasnikov, V. V.

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, R. W.

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moratti, S. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

D. Moses, “High quantum efficiency luminescence from a conducting polymer in solution: a novel polymer laser dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3215–3216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reib, W.

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schwoerer, M.

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorek, Y.

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stenger-Smith, J.

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wildeman, J.

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, M.

B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).

Wung, C. J.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Z. Faraggi, Y. Sorek, O. Levi, Y. Avny, D. Davidov, R. Neumann, R. Reisfeld, “New conjugated polymer/sol-gel glass composites: luminescence and optical waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 8, 833–839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, “Visible light emission from semiconducting polymer diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1982–1984 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Moses, “High quantum efficiency luminescence from a conducting polymer in solution: a novel polymer laser dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3215–3216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Brouwer, V. V. Krasnikov, A. Hilberer, J. Wildeman, G. Hadziioannou, “Novel high efficiency copolymer laser dye in the blue wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3404–3406 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

B. L. Davies, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, “Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel composites derived from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2586–2594 (1996).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hide, B. J. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, “Third order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly (p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly (p-phenylene vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1408 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Part A (1)

R. W. Lenz, C. C. Han, J. Stenger-Smith, F. E. Karasz, “Preparation of poly (phenylene vinylene) from cycloalkylene sulfonium salt monomers and polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 26, 3241–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature (London) 365, 628–630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. H. Lee, G. Yu, A. J. Heeger, “Persistent photoconductivity in poly (p-phenylene vinylene): spectral response and slow relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 47,15,543–15,553 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (2)

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly (p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composite: a novel sol-gel processed non-linear optical material for optical waveguides,” Polymer 32, 605–608 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273, 1833–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Reib, M. Schwoerer, “Tailoring of the electrical and optical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 76, 109–112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of a 100-μm-thick PPV–silica composite processed at 150 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of PPV–silica samples processed at 100, 150, 200, and 250 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence and lasing spectra obtained from the PPV–silica composite.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profile of the pump pulse and the laser output pulse from the PPV–silica composite.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser output energy per pulse plotted as a function of the pump energy for the PPV–silica composite.

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