Abstract

Neodymium-doped benzil crystals have been synthesized and characterized for their absorption, emission, and kinetics properties. From Judd–Ofelt analysis, the radiative decay time of Nd emission (peaking at 1055 nm) is estimated to be equal to 441 μs. The experimental Nd lifetime (under Ar+ laser excitation) is equal to 19 μs. The broad emission band centered at approximately 700 nm (τdecay ≈ 15 ns) and the Raman scattering with characteristic frequency shift of 1600 cm-1 have been observed at excitation of benzil with 532-nm Q-switched laser pulses. We show that rare-earth-doped benzil can be considered as a potential candidate for luminescent and solid-state laser material.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Urich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–433 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Gromov, K. M. Dyumaev, A. A. Manenkov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, “Efficient plastic-host dye lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1028–1031 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.
  6. S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, A. Floener, “Compact, high-brightness solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. T. H. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 119–122.
  7. M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.
  9. A. Makherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).
  11. R. T. Chen, Z. Z. Ho, D. Robinson, “Graded index polymer waveguide amplifier working at 1.06 μm,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, Proc. SPIE274, 87–96 (1992).
  12. C. J. Brown, R. Sadanaga, “The crystal structure of benzil,” Acta Crystallogr. 18, 158–164 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. W. Lan, C. R. Song, “Growth of benzil crystals by vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique in a transparent furnace,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 127–135 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
  15. F. H. Babai, E. A. D. White, “The growth of void-free crystal cored fibers of organic materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 49, 245–252 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Kaminskii, “Crystalline lasers: physical properties and operation schemes,” (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
  17. T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “Optical absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal orthoaluminate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517–5522 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Sahar, D. Treves, “Excited singlet-state absorption in dyes and their effect on dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 962–967 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. R. Dollish, W. G. Fateley, F. F. Bentley, “Benzene and its derivatives,” in Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds, (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 13, pp. 162–189.
  21. B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Compounds, 2nd ed. H. F. Ebel, ed. (VCH, New York, 1989).

1997 (1)

C. W. Lan, C. R. Song, “Growth of benzil crystals by vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique in a transparent furnace,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 127–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

1993 (3)

D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Makherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

F. H. Babai, E. A. D. White, “The growth of void-free crystal cored fibers of organic materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 49, 245–252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “Optical absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal orthoaluminate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517–5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. Sahar, D. Treves, “Excited singlet-state absorption in dyes and their effect on dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 962–967 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. Urich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–433 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

C. J. Brown, R. Sadanaga, “The crystal structure of benzil,” Acta Crystallogr. 18, 158–164 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abdeldayem, H.

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

Alik, T. H.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, A. Floener, “Compact, high-brightness solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. T. H. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 119–122.

Babai, F. H.

F. H. Babai, E. A. D. White, “The growth of void-free crystal cored fibers of organic materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 49, 245–252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, F. F.

F. R. Dollish, W. G. Fateley, F. F. Bentley, “Benzene and its derivatives,” in Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds, (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 13, pp. 162–189.

Boilot, J. P.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

Boyer, J. H.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Briant, W.

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

Brown, C. J.

C. J. Brown, R. Sadanaga, “The crystal structure of benzil,” Acta Crystallogr. 18, 158–164 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

Canva, M.

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, A. Floener, “Compact, high-brightness solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. T. H. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 119–122.

Chaput, F.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, Z. Z. Ho, D. Robinson, “Graded index polymer waveguide amplifier working at 1.06 μm,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, Proc. SPIE274, 87–96 (1992).

DeShazer, L. G.

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “Optical absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal orthoaluminate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517–5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dollish, F. R.

F. R. Dollish, W. G. Fateley, F. F. Bentley, “Benzene and its derivatives,” in Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds, (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 13, pp. 162–189.

Dubois, A.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dyumaev, K. M.

Faloss, M.

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

Fateley, W. G.

F. R. Dollish, W. G. Fateley, F. F. Bentley, “Benzene and its derivatives,” in Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds, (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 13, pp. 162–189.

Floener, A.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, A. Floener, “Compact, high-brightness solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. T. H. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 119–122.

Georges, P.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene and perylene dyes in xerogel host,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds. Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 69–71.

Gromov, D. A.

Hermes, R. E.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Ho, Z. Z.

R. T. Chen, Z. Z. Ho, D. Robinson, “Graded index polymer waveguide amplifier working at 1.06 μm,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, Proc. SPIE274, 87–96 (1992).

Hutchinson, J. A.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

A. A. Kaminskii, “Crystalline lasers: physical properties and operation schemes,” (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

Lan, C. W.

C. W. Lan, C. R. Song, “Growth of benzil crystals by vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique in a transparent furnace,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 127–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawless, J. L.

D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lo, D.

D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lomheim, T. S.

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “Optical absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal orthoaluminate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517–5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Makherjee, A.

A. Makherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manenkov, A. A.

Matyushin, G. A.

Nechitailo, V. S.

Noginov, M. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parris, J. E.

D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

Ranger, A.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J. P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafter rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid-state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, Proc. SPIE2288, 298–309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D.

R. T. Chen, Z. Z. Ho, D. Robinson, “Graded index polymer waveguide amplifier working at 1.06 μm,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, Proc. SPIE274, 87–96 (1992).

Sadanaga, R.

C. J. Brown, R. Sadanaga, “The crystal structure of benzil,” Acta Crystallogr. 18, 158–164 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sahar, E.

E. Sahar, D. Treves, “Excited singlet-state absorption in dyes and their effect on dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 962–967 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, S. S.

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

Schrader, B.

B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Compounds, 2nd ed. H. F. Ebel, ed. (VCH, New York, 1989).

Shcherbakov, I. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. R.

C. W. Lan, C. R. Song, “Growth of benzil crystals by vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique in a transparent furnace,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 127–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soong, M.-L.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Treves, D.

E. Sahar, D. Treves, “Excited singlet-state absorption in dyes and their effect on dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 962–967 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Urich, L.

L. Urich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–433 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

Weber, H. P.

L. Urich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–433 (1972).
[CrossRef]

White, E. A. D.

F. H. Babai, E. A. D. White, “The growth of void-free crystal cored fibers of organic materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 49, 245–252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zubenko, D. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

C. J. Brown, R. Sadanaga, “The crystal structure of benzil,” Acta Crystallogr. 18, 158–164 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Urich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–433 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Makherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Alik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid-state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Lo, J. E. Parris, J. L. Lawless, “Laser and fluorescence properties of dye-doped sol-gel silica from 400 nm to 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 385–390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Sahar, D. Treves, “Excited singlet-state absorption in dyes and their effect on dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 962–967 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “Optical absorption intensities of trivalent neodymium in the uniaxial crystal orthoaluminate,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517–5522 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Measurement of the luminescent parameters of active media based on crystals of rare-earth scandium garnets,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 975–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

F. H. Babai, E. A. D. White, “The growth of void-free crystal cored fibers of organic materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 49, 245–252 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. W. Lan, C. R. Song, “Growth of benzil crystals by vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique in a transparent furnace,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 127–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, H. Abdeldayem, W. Briant, P. Venkateswarlu, “Light emitting polymeric planar waveguide with transverse pump,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 35, 235 (1994).

Other (9)

R. T. Chen, Z. Z. Ho, D. Robinson, “Graded index polymer waveguide amplifier working at 1.06 μm,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, Proc. SPIE274, 87–96 (1992).

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M.-L. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

S. Chandra, T. H. Allik, A. Floener, “Compact, high-brightness solid-state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. T. H. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 119–122.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Projection of benzil molecules in the crystal on (0001), showing packing between the groups arranged around the 31 axis. Molecules drawn with full lines have their midpoints at z = 0, those with broken lines at z = 1/3, and those with dotted lines at z = 2/3. (Adopted from Ref. 12).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectrum of undoped melt-grown benzil and (b) Nd-doped benzil. The amount of Nd ions in the doped sample was equal to 2.2% of the amount of benzil molecules.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Emission spectrum of Nd-doped benzil under cw Ar+ laser excitation. (The spectrum is not normalized for the spectral sensitivity of the detector.) (b) The spectral response of the detector, near-IR photomultiplier (Model 77361) from Oriel Corp., used in the emission measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectrum of benzil crystal under Q-switched 532-nm excitation (recorded with a 570-nm-long pass filter). The spectrum is not normalized for the spectral sensitivity of the detector. The spectral response of the detector is shown in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy gap calculated from the position of the 532-nm line versus the scattering order.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectra of two approximately 4-week-old Nd:benzil samples under cw Ar+ laser excitation.

Equations (6)

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  k λ d λ = 8 π 3 N 0 λ ¯ e 2 3 ch 2 J + 1 n 2 + 2 2 9 n × t = 2,4,6   Ω t | ψ J U t ψ J | ,
A ψ J ;   ψ J = 64 π 4 e 2 3 h 2 J + 1 λ ¯ 3 n 2 + 2 2 9 × t = 2,4,6   Ω t | ψ J U t ψ J | ,
σ J J λ ¯ = A J J λ ¯ 4 8 π n 2 c   I λ λ d λ I λ ¯ λ ¯ ,
  I Nd λ λ d λ   I host λ λ d λ     n Nd A Nd n host A host     K Nd A Nd K host A host ,
  I Nd λ λ d λ   I host λ λ d λ     n Nd A Nd n host A host     K Nd τ Nd A Nd K host τ host A host     K Nd η Nd K host η host ,
I Nd λ ¯ Nd I host λ ¯ host = K Nd A Nd K host A host = K Nd σ Nd λ ¯ Nd λ ¯ host 5 K host σ host λ ¯ host λ ¯ Nd 5 ,

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