Abstract

The dependence of sea surface directional reflectance on surface wind stress suggests a method for deriving surface wind speed from space-based lidar measurements of sea surface backscatter. In particular, lidar measurements in the nadir angle range from 10° to 30° appear to be most sensitive to surface wind-speed variability in the regime below 10 m/s. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) shuttle lidar mission of September 1994 provided a unique opportunity to measure directional backscatter at selected locations by use of the landmark track maneuver and to measure fixed-angle backscatter from the ocean surfaces on a global scale. During the landmark track maneuver the shuttle orbiter orientation and roll axis are adjusted continuously to maintain the lidar footprint at a fixed location for a duration of ∼1 min. Several data sets were converted to calibrated reflectance units and compared with a surface reflectance model to deduce surface wind speeds. Comparisons were made with ERS-1 scatterometer data and surface measurements.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (2)

1996 (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s lidar in-space technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 1–17 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, “Derivation of atmospheric extinction profiles and wind speed over the ocean from a satellite-borne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3994–4001 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. A. Donelan, W. J. Pierson, “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4971–5029 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, E. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Tsai, C. S. Gardner, “Remote sensing of sea state using laser altimeters,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3932–3940 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–97 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. Kodis, “A note on the theory of scattering from an irregular surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 77–82 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

C. Cox, “Measurements of the slopes of high frequency wind waves,” J. Marine Res. 16, 199–225 (1958).

1954 (2)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Marine Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photography of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. R.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R. M.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barrick, D. E.

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, D. S.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, E. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D. A.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Carter, D. L.

Churnside, J. H.

Coakley, J. A.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Couch, R. H.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s lidar in-space technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 1–17 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox, “Measurements of the slopes of high frequency wind waves,” J. Marine Res. 16, 199–225 (1958).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Marine Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photography of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Dalu, G.

Donelan, M. A.

M. A. Donelan, W. J. Pierson, “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4971–5029 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Emmitt, G. D.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D.

Gardner, C. S.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Tsai, C. S. Gardner, “Remote sensing of sea state using laser altimeters,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3932–3940 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, I. L.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Gurganus, E. A.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, E. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hall, F. F.

Hardesty, R. M.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, R. M.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. M. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Marine Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffaker, R. M.

Hwang, P. A.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Keeler, R. J.

Kent, G. S.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kodis, R.

R. Kodis, “A note on the theory of scattering from an irregular surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 77–82 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

Krabill, W. B.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. M. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Marine Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kratz, D.

Krishnamurti, T. N.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, T. R.

Lorenc, A. C.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s lidar in-space technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 1–17 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

S. P. Palm, S. H. Melfi, D. L. Carter, “New airborne scanning lidar system: applications for atmospheric remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5674–5681 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, J. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photography of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Marine Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Otterman, J.

Paegle, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palm, S. P.

Petri, K. J.

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–97 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, O. M.

O. M. Phillips, The Dynamics of the Upper Ocean, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1977).

Pierson, W. J.

M. A. Donelan, W. J. Pierson, “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4971–5029 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Huffaker, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, J. T. Priestley, F. F. Hall, R. A. Richter, R. J. Keeler, “Feasibility studies for a global wind measuring satellite system (Windsat): analysis of simulated performance,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2523–2536 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Priestley, J. T.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Randall, D. A.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R. A.

Robertson, F.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Shemdin, O. H.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

Susskind, J.

Swift, R. M.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. M. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Marine Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Takashima, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, B. M.

Weinman, J. A.

Whitlock, C. H.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, E. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s lidar in-space technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 1–17 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Appl. Opt. (11)

P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Otterman, J. Susskind, G. Dalu, D. Kratz, I. L. Goldberg, “Effects of water emission anisotropy on multispectral remote sensing at thermal wavelengths of ocean temperature and of cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7633–7646 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8–13 μm: modeling and verification,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2609–2619 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Huffaker, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, J. T. Priestley, F. F. Hall, R. A. Richter, R. J. Keeler, “Feasibility studies for a global wind measuring satellite system (Windsat): analysis of simulated performance,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2523–2536 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Palm, S. H. Melfi, D. L. Carter, “New airborne scanning lidar system: applications for atmospheric remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5674–5681 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Tsai, C. S. Gardner, “Remote sensing of sea state using laser altimeters,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3932–3940 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5–15 μ),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073–2078 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Weinman, “Derivation of atmospheric extinction profiles and wind speed over the ocean from a satellite-borne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3994–4001 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, J. A. Reagan, “Scientific investigations planned for the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205–214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, E. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

R. Kodis, “A note on the theory of scattering from an irregular surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 77–82 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. (1)

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–97 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. A. Donelan, W. J. Pierson, “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4971–5029 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Marine Res. (2)

C. Cox, “Measurements of the slopes of high frequency wind waves,” J. Marine Res. 16, 199–225 (1958).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Marine Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Opt Soc. Am. (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photography of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Marine Geod. (1)

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. M. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Marine Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s lidar in-space technology experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 1–17 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Phillips, The Dynamics of the Upper Ocean, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1977).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modeled lidar reflectance from the sea surface for various wind speeds. Subsurface (underwater) volume backscatter is not included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lidar fractional reflectance increment with respect to incremental change in wind speed for selected nadir angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LITE 355-nm backscatter from the Gulf of California LMT, 12 September 1994, with model lidar reflectance curves for selected wind speeds. Saturated signal values at small nadir angles are not shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LITE 1064-nm backscatter from the tropical eastern Pacific LMT, 14 September, with a model lidar reflectance curve for 9-m/s wind speed. Saturated signal values at small nadir angles are not shown. The dashed curves denote the ±1-m/s intervals about the nominal 9-m/s best-fit case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LITE 532-nm backscatter from the tropical eastern Pacific LMT, 14 September, with model lidar reflectance curve for 9-m/s wind speed. Saturated signal values at small nadir angles are not shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LITE 1064-nm backscatter from the Gulf of California LMT, 16 September, with model lidar reflectance curve for 9-m/s wind speed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LITE 532-nm backscatter from the Gulf of California LMT, 16 September, with a model lidar reflectance curve for 9-m/s wind speed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LITE 1064-nm backscatter from the Lake Superior LMT, 16 September, with model lidar reflectance curves for selected wind speeds.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

LITE 532-nm backscatter from the Lake Superior LMT, 16 September, with model lidar reflectance curves for selected wind speeds.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LITE Landmark Track Opportunities

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = WR f , eff + 1 - W R s + 1 - WR f , eff R u ,
p z x ,   z y = π s 2 - 1 exp - z x 2 + z y 2 / s 2 ,
s 2 = ln U 10 + 1.2 10 - 2     U 10 7   m / s , = 0.85 ln U 10 - 1.45 10 - 1     U 10 > 7   m / s .
R s = ρ   sec 4 θ 2 π s 2 exp - tan 2 θ s 2 ,

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