Abstract

A fiber optic system for water analysis with high transparency in the deep-UV region (λ ≥ 190 nm) is presented. The system consists of special UV-improved silica fibers and a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) as an optical cell. The apertures of both light guides, the silica fiber and the LCW, are matched. The optical losses of the device are investigated experimentally and compared with theory, especially with a standard free-space geometry. The performance of the system with respect to UV absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated for nitrate and chlorine pollution in pure water. For a 203-mm-long LCW the detection limits have been determined to be as low as 22 μg/L for nitrate and 26 μg/L for chlorine.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  8. K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
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  9. P. Dress, H. Franke, “A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 12–19 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Data sheet for the LCK 310/343 chlorine/ozone/chlorine dioxide test kit (Bruno Lange GmbH, Berlin, Germany, 1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. Suzuki, R. Kuroda, “Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry,” Analyst 112, 1077–1079 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.
  35. N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

1997 (4)

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Dress, H. Franke, “Increasing the accuracy of liquid analysis and pH-value control using a liquid-core waveguide,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2167–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

1996 (1)

P. Dress, H. Franke, “A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 12–19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. W. Burgess, “Absorption-based sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 10–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. A. Weeks, “The many varieties of E′-centers: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, N. S. Subbramanian, “Optical characteristics of Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1982–1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

N. Suzuki, R. Kuroda, “Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry,” Analyst 112, 1077–1079 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Source light pathways inside a long capillary cell used colorimetry,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 34, 173–176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. K. Dasgupta, “Multipath cells for extending dynamic range of optical absorbance measurements,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1401–1403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Determination of phosphorus in natural waters by long-capillary-cell absorption spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 951–955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, M. Munemori, “Continuous flow determination of free chlorine in water,” Anal. Chem. 55, 209–212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleming, D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3102–3104 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. F. Marino, J. D. Ingle, “Determination of chlorine in water by luminol chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 53, 455–458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

L. P. Rigdon, G. J. Moody, L. W. Frazer, “Determination of residual chlorine in water with computer automation and a residual-chlorine electrode,” Anal. Chem. 50, 465–468 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Stone, “Optical transmission of liquid-core quartz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 239–240 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, M. Munemori, “Continuous flow determination of free chlorine in water,” Anal. Chem. 55, 209–212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Belz, M.

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.

Benjathapanun, N.

N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

Blades, M. W.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, W. J. O.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R.

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, L. W.

L. W. Burgess, “Absorption-based sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 10–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, “A novel perfluorinated AR and protective coating for KDP and other optical materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE1441, 294–303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, P. K.

P. K. Dasgupta, “Multipath cells for extending dynamic range of optical absorbance measurements,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1401–1403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, D.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doherty, A. P.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dress, P.

P. Dress, H. Franke, “Increasing the accuracy of liquid analysis and pH-value control using a liquid-core waveguide,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2167–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Dress, H. Franke, “A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 12–19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

Forrestal, M.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

P. Dress, H. Franke, “Increasing the accuracy of liquid analysis and pH-value control using a liquid-core waveguide,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2167–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Dress, H. Franke, “A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 12–19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frazer, L. W.

L. P. Rigdon, G. J. Moody, L. W. Frazer, “Determination of residual chlorine in water with computer automation and a residual-chlorine electrode,” Anal. Chem. 50, 465–468 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Source light pathways inside a long capillary cell used colorimetry,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 34, 173–176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Determination of phosphorus in natural waters by long-capillary-cell absorption spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 951–955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fuwa, K.

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Source light pathways inside a long capillary cell used colorimetry,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 34, 173–176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Determination of phosphorus in natural waters by long-capillary-cell absorption spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 951–955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gouxia, R.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greek, L. S.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, S.

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grzesik, U.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, U. Grzesik, “Improved optical fibers for excimer laser applications,” in Lasers in Medicine, W. Weidelich, G. Stehler, R. Weidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 517–521.

Hamilton, I.

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, C. A.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillrichs, G.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, U. Grzesik, “Improved optical fibers for excimer laser applications,” in Lasers in Medicine, W. Weidelich, G. Stehler, R. Weidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 517–521.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 564–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huettel, S.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hüttel, S.

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ingle, J. D.

D. F. Marino, J. D. Ingle, “Determination of chlorine in water by luminol chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 53, 455–458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, U.

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karlberg, B.

M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karlitschek, P.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 564–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, U. Grzesik, “Improved optical fibers for excimer laser applications,” in Lasers in Medicine, W. Weidelich, G. Stehler, R. Weidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 517–521.

Karlsson, M.

M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klein, K.-F.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, U. Grzesik, “Improved optical fibers for excimer laser applications,” in Lasers in Medicine, W. Weidelich, G. Stehler, R. Weidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 517–521.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 564–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.

Kuroda, R.

N. Suzuki, R. Kuroda, “Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry,” Analyst 112, 1077–1079 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lei, W.

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Source light pathways inside a long capillary cell used colorimetry,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 34, 173–176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Determination of phosphorus in natural waters by long-capillary-cell absorption spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 951–955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lowry, J. H.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, N. S. Subbramanian, “Optical characteristics of Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1982–1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B. D.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 564–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marino, D. F.

D. F. Marino, J. D. Ingle, “Determination of chlorine in water by luminol chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 53, 455–458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, J.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mendlowitz, J. S.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, N. S. Subbramanian, “Optical characteristics of Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1982–1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minzhao, F.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moody, G. J.

L. P. Rigdon, G. J. Moody, L. W. Frazer, “Determination of residual chlorine in water with computer automation and a residual-chlorine electrode,” Anal. Chem. 50, 465–468 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mouaziz, Z.

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Munemori, M.

T. Aoki, M. Munemori, “Continuous flow determination of free chlorine in water,” Anal. Chem. 55, 209–212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, G.

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, R. J. O.

M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

M. R. Querry, D. M. Wieliczka, D. J. Segelstein, “Water (H2O),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), Vol. II, pp. 1059–1077.
[CrossRef]

Qushe, H.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rigdon, L. P.

L. P. Rigdon, G. J. Moody, L. W. Frazer, “Determination of residual chlorine in water with computer automation and a residual-chlorine electrode,” Anal. Chem. 50, 465–468 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rode, H.

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schliessmann, P.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, H. G.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Segelstein, D. J.

M. R. Querry, D. M. Wieliczka, D. J. Segelstein, “Water (H2O),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), Vol. II, pp. 1059–1077.
[CrossRef]

Simeonsson, J. B.

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. W.

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolka, E.

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M. A.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, “Optical transmission of liquid-core quartz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 239–240 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Subbramanian, N. S.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, N. S. Subbramanian, “Optical characteristics of Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1982–1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki, R. Kuroda, “Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry,” Analyst 112, 1077–1079 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tao, W.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I. M.

I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, “A novel perfluorinated AR and protective coating for KDP and other optical materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE1441, 294–303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R. F. B.

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. G.

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R. A.

R. A. Weeks, “The many varieties of E′-centers: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wieliczka, D. M.

M. R. Querry, D. M. Wieliczka, D. J. Segelstein, “Water (H2O),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), Vol. II, pp. 1059–1077.
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, D. L.

Yuanmin, L.

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (7)

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Determination of phosphorus in natural waters by long-capillary-cell absorption spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 951–955 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Dasgupta, “Multipath cells for extending dynamic range of optical absorbance measurements,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1401–1403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, H. Qushe, W. Tao, F. Minzhao, L. Yuanmin, R. Gouxia, “Absorbance study of liquid-core optical fibers in spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chem. 64, 22–25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Rigdon, G. J. Moody, L. W. Frazer, “Determination of residual chlorine in water with computer automation and a residual-chlorine electrode,” Anal. Chem. 50, 465–468 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Marino, J. D. Ingle, “Determination of chlorine in water by luminol chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 53, 455–458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, M. Munemori, “Continuous flow determination of free chlorine in water,” Anal. Chem. 55, 209–212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujiwara, J. B. Simeonsson, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Waveguide capillary flow cell for fluorometry,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1065–1068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (2)

M. A. Stanley, J. Maxwell, M. Forrestal, A. P. Doherty, B. D. MacCraith, D. Diamond, J. G. Vos, “Comparison of the analytical capabilities of an amperometric and an optical sensor for the determination of nitrate in river and well water,” Anal. Chim. Acta 299, 81–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, B. Karlberg, R. J. O. Olsson, “Determination of nitrate in municipal waste water by UV spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 312, 107–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

N. Suzuki, R. Kuroda, “Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry,” Analyst 112, 1077–1079 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Dress, H. Franke, “A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 12–19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Stone, “Optical transmission of liquid-core quartz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 239–240 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. A. Weeks, “The many varieties of E′-centers: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 1–9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. (1)

W. Lei, K. Fujiwara, K. Fuwa, “Source light pathways inside a long capillary cell used colorimetry,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 34, 173–176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, N. S. Subbramanian, “Optical characteristics of Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1982–1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

N. Benjathapanun, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Binary encoded 2nd-differential spectrometry using UV-Vis spectra data and neural networks in the estimation of species type and concentration,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 144, 73–80 (1997).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Dress, H. Franke, “Increasing the accuracy of liquid analysis and pH-value control using a liquid-core waveguide,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2167–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (4)

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Smart sensor approach for a fiber-optic based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 380–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Burgess, “Absorption-based sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 10–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, P. Schliessmann, E. Smolka, G. Hillrichs, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “UV-stabilized silica based fiber for applications around 200 nm wavelength,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 305–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mouaziz, R. Briggs, I. Hamilton, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and implementation of a fiber-optic-based residual chlorine monitor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 431–440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater14th ed. (American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1975), pp. 304–349.

M. R. Querry, D. M. Wieliczka, D. J. Segelstein, “Water (H2O),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), Vol. II, pp. 1059–1077.
[CrossRef]

Data sheet for the LCK 310/343 chlorine/ozone/chlorine dioxide test kit (Bruno Lange GmbH, Berlin, Germany, 1996).

M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K.-F. Klein, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurements using fiber optics at wavelengths below 250 nm,” in Proceedings of the XIV International Measurement Confederation World Congress, J. Haltunnen, ed. (Finnish Automation Support, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 151–155.

K.-F. Klein, H. Rode, M. Belz, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, “Water quality measurement using fiber optics at wavelengths below 230 nm,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 186–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manufacturer’s data sheet on deuterium lamps (Heraeus Noblelight GmbH, Hanau, Germany).

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, U. Grzesik, “Improved optical fibers for excimer laser applications,” in Lasers in Medicine, W. Weidelich, G. Stehler, R. Weidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 517–521.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 564–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Klein, S. Huettel, L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, M. W. Blades, C. A. Haynes, R. F. B. Turner, “Fiber-guided tunable UV-laserlight system around 215 nm,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 94–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manufacturer’s data on the deuterium-lamp–fiber system Pittcon1997 (Heraeus Noblelight GmbH, Hanau, Germany.)

K.-F. Klein, S. Hüttel, U. Kaminski, J. Kirchhof, S. Grimm, G. Nelson, “Stability and life-time improvements of UV-fibers for new applications,” in Surgical-Assist Systems, M. S. Bogner, S. T. Charles, W. S. Grandfest, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, L. S. Lome, M. W. Vannier, R. Von Hanwehr, eds., Proc. SPIE3262, 150–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Product information on Teflon AF 1600/2400 (Specialty Polymers Division, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del., 1990).

I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, “A novel perfluorinated AR and protective coating for KDP and other optical materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE1441, 294–303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral output of two silica fiber types (1 m long, 100-μm core diameter) in the wavelength range λ = 180–390 nm. A standard silica fiber with typical high absorption for λ < 250 nm is compared with the UVI silica fibers used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal transmission behavior of 2-m long UVI silica fibers for three fiber core diameters at λ = 214 nm; the illumination of the fiber starts at t = 0 min, is switched off at t = 30 min, and starts again at t = 120 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field measurements of the UVI silica fibers for three wavelengths in the UV range to illustrate the influence of the light-incoupling conditions on the output characteristics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the cylindrical LCW. The sketch illustrates all the characteristic geometrical dimensions of the LCW system, especially the UV silica fiber dimensions that are used in the experiments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss values of the LCW system for several distances Z LCW. Theoretical calculations based on a ray picture model9,10 (LCW losses, solid curves) and a geometry model7 (free-space losses, dotted curves).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sketch of the experimental setup used for the analytical measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption measurements from 200 to 400 nm of OCl- at several concentrations smaller than 35 mg/L (pH, 10.2; ϑ = 17.5 °C; Z LCW = 203 mm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCl- calibration curve for the absorption values at 290 nm from Fig. 7 (pH, 10.2; ϑ = 17.5 °C; Z LCW = 203 mm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption measurements from 190 to 270 nm for several nitrate concentrations in water (ϑ = 17.5 °C, Z LCW = 203 mm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Nitrate (NO3 -) calibration curves at four wavelengths in the nitrate concentration range from 0 to 0.5 mg/L (ϑ = 17.5 °C, Z LCW = 203 mm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of the Complex Refractive Indices of Media Used for Theoretical Loss Calculations for Distances ZLCW and Geometries

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Linear Regression (A + B* Concentration), Correlation (R), and Standard Deviation (SD) of NO3 - Absorption at Four Wavelengths As a Function of Concentration

Metrics