Abstract

In a lidar system an accurate transmitter–receiver alignment is essential for correct results. Usually this optical adjustment is time consuming and requires the intervention of highly qualified personnel. As a solution to this problem, a fast and precise automatic alignment procedure is presented, based on a simple model of the transmitter–receiver overlap. The lidar mounted at the Naples University is used to test this method. A centering precision of few microradians is obtained through dedicated software controlling a gimbal-mounted mirror. The automatic alignment procedure is then assessed. In particular, the correctness of the center and of its error is determined. Finally, the system is applied to the monitoring of tropospheric aerosols, leading to the continuous retrieval of profiles with fine spatiotemporal resolution.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (3)

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1963 (1)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of scattering layers in the upper atmosphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) 199, 1275–1276 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ambrico, P.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Amodeo, A.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Amoruso, S.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Ancellet, G.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Armenante, M.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Bais, A.

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, B.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beekmann, M.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bellecci, C.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Boselli, A.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Bruzzese, R.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caputi, G. E.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carnuth, W.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Couch, R. H.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cuomo, V.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Donato, F.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Durieux, E.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass.1968).

Esposito, F.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Finlayson-Pitts, J. B.

J. B. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of scattering layers in the upper atmosphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) 199, 1275–1276 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Fiorani, L.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flamm, M.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaudio, P.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, “Lidar for atmospheric and hydrospheric studies,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 213–305.

Haner, D. A.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaquet, L.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kempfer, U.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kleiman, M. M.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Kley, D.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lotz, R.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

Mégie, G.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, H.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mészáros, E.

E. Mészáros, Atmospheric Chemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1981).

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pappalardo, G.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pielke, R. A.

R. A. Pielke, Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984).

Pitts, J. N.

J. B. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Serio, C.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smit, H. G. J.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smullin, L. D.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of scattering layers in the upper atmosphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) 199, 1275–1276 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Stull, R. B.

R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, M.

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van den Bergh, H.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Walsh, T. D.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

White, M. L.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

Zerefos, C. S.

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziomas, I.

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, G. Pappalardo, C. Serio, N. Spinelli, M. Armenante, B. Bartoli, V. Berardi, R. Bruzzese, C. Bellecci, G. E. Caputi, F. De Donato, P. Gaudio, M. Valentini, H. Melfi, M. P. McCormick“The LITE correlative measurements campaign in southern Italy: preliminary results,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 553–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (3)

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, A. Bais, D. Balis, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, L. Jaquet, I. Ziomas, C. S. Zerefos, “The role of urban and suburban aerosols on solar UV radiation over Athens, Greece,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2193–2201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, G. Mégie, H. G. J. Smit, D. Kley, “Intercomparison campaign of vertical ozone profiles including electrochemical sondes of ECC and Brewer–Mast type and ground based UV-differential absorption lidar,” J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 259–288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelektron. (1)

P. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, M. Armenante, V. Berardi, A. Boselli, R. Bruzzese, P. Di Girolamo, L. Fiorani, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, “A multiparametric lidar system in the mid IR,” Laser Optoelektron. 29(5), 62–69 (1997).

Nature (London) (1)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of scattering layers in the upper atmosphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) 199, 1275–1276 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. B. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

R. A. Pielke, Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984).

A. C. Stern, ed., Air Pollution—Volume III: Measuring, Monitoring and Surveillance of Air Pollution (Academic, New York, 1977).

E. D. Hinkley, ed., Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1976).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

W. B. Grant, “Lidar for atmospheric and hydrospheric studies,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 213–305.

E. Mészáros, Atmospheric Chemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1981).

R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass.1968).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified two-dimensional model of the transmitter–receiver overlap for a monostatic coaxial lidar. The solid lines delimit the telescope FOV (full divergence 2δ). AB and CD, respectively, represent the laser beam (full divergence 2∊) near and far from the alignment condition (ϕ = Φ). 1, 2 and 3, respectively, mark the beam, the telescope, and the reference axes. The reference axis corresponds to the zero position of the gimbal-mounted mirror that directs the beam into the atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal level at a selected altitude as a function of the laser beam direction. The modeled curve (solid curve) is drawn according to the system characteristics given in Table 2 (2δ = 5 mrad, 2∊ = 1.5 mrad). The experimental points were obtained by integration of the lidar return between 500 and 650 m in range. The dashed line indicates the efficiency of the detection assembly as measured in the laboratory with a light beam simulating the rays focused by the telescope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental layout of the lidar mounted at the Physics Department of the Naples University. (b) System used to reproduce in the laboratory the effect on the detection assembly of sweeping the laser beam in the telescope FOV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the self-alignment procedure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detection cone center as a function of the range selected for its measurement. The error bars represent ±1 standard deviation of Φ (average of 41 measurements).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Drift of the detection cone center as a function of time for R s = 500 m and ΔR = 150 m (13 March 1997).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aerosol backscattering coefficient (351 nm) as a function of time and altitude (40°50′ N, 14°10′ E, 13 March 1997).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Components of the Naples University Lidar System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Main Characteristics of the Naples University Lidar System

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P R = k ξ R P 0 A R 2   β R c τ 2 exp - 2   0 R   α R d R ,
R = ct / 2 ,
Φ = i   P i ϕ i i   P i .
σ Φ 2 = j ϕ j - Φ i   P i 2   σ j 2 ,
σ Φ 2 = j Φ P j 2   σ j 2 .
Φ P j = i   P i ϕ i i   P i P j = i   P i ϕ i P j i   P i - i   P i ϕ i i   P i P j i   P i 2 = ϕ j i   P i - i   P i ϕ i i   P i 2 = ϕ j - Φ i   P i .

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