Abstract

The feasibility of observing global tropospheric and total ozone (O3) fields with a double-etalon Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI) has been assessed. The FPI provides high spectral resolution and high-throughput capabilities that enable observation in pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions (i.e., from the terrestrial surface and interfering species). A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis assessing the impact on retrieved O3 amounts from the most significant uncertainties associated with this particular measurement has been performed, and findings for a tropical atmosphere are presented. Results show the proposed instrumentation to enable a good measurement of absolute ozone amounts and an even better determination of relative changes.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. B. Grant, ed., Ozone Measuring Instruments for the Stratosphere, Vol. 1 of OSA Collected Works in Optics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  3. A. M. Larar, “The feasibility of tropospheric and total ozone determination using a Fabry–Perot interferometer as a satellite-based nadir-viewing atmospheric sensor,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1993).
  4. A. M. Larar, P. B. Hays, S. R. Drayson, “Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a double-etalon Fabry–Perot interferometer. I. Instrument concept,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4721–4731 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Twomey, “Introduction to the mathematics of inversion in remote sensing and indirect measurements,” in Developments in Geomathematics (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.
  11. C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).
  15. W. Zhao, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the planetary boundary layer,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1992).

1998

1997

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Biona, C. B.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Connor, B. J.

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cros, B.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drayson, S. R.

Fishman, J.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

Jones, N. B.

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Koike, M.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larar, A. M.

A. M. Larar, P. B. Hays, S. R. Drayson, “Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a double-etalon Fabry–Perot interferometer. I. Instrument concept,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4721–4731 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Larar, “The feasibility of tropospheric and total ozone determination using a Fabry–Perot interferometer as a satellite-based nadir-viewing atmospheric sensor,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1993).

Larsen, J. C.

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. A.

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, C. J.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Minga, A.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murata, I.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. J.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nganga, D.

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olson, J. R.

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pougatchev, N. S.

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “Introduction to the mathematics of inversion in remote sensing and indirect measurements,” in Developments in Geomathematics (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.

Watson, C. E.

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the planetary boundary layer,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1992).

Zhao, Y.

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, N. B. Jones, C. P. Rinsland, “Validation of ozone profile retrievals from infrared ground-based solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1637–1640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakajima, X. Liu, I. Murata, Y. Kondo, F. J. Murcray, M. Koike, Y. Zhao, H. Nakane, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone from high-resolution infrared solar spectra at Rikubetsu, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29981–29990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Pougatchev, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, “Infrared measurements of the ozone vertical distribution above Kitt Peak,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16689–16697 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. B. Biona, J. Fishman, W. B. Grant, “The vertical distribution of ozone measured at Brazzavill, Congo during TRACE A,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24095–24103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Olson, J. Fishman, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, B. Cros, “Analysis of the distribution of ozone over the southern Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24083–24094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. B. Grant, ed., Ozone Measuring Instruments for the Stratosphere, Vol. 1 of OSA Collected Works in Optics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

A. M. Larar, “The feasibility of tropospheric and total ozone determination using a Fabry–Perot interferometer as a satellite-based nadir-viewing atmospheric sensor,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1993).

S. Twomey, “Introduction to the mathematics of inversion in remote sensing and indirect measurements,” in Developments in Geomathematics (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0–120 km), Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Philips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

W. Zhao, “Thermal infrared radiation transfer in the planetary boundary layer,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Averaging kernels for selected altitudes. The altitude represented by each curve is noted in kilometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaging kernels for merged layers. The 0–100-km kernel represents a total ozone observation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieval simulation for a tropical atmosphere having enhanced tropospheric ozone. Sounding data from Brazzaville, Congo, on 5 August 1992, were used for the true profile, and the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere (tropical) was used for the first guess. This simulation was performed with large a priori error covariance (S x ). (a) Shows vertical character of true, first guess, and retrieved ozone profiles, as well as integrated ozone amounts for all iterations; and (b) illustrates true, first guess, and retrieved profiles ratioed to the true profile. DU, density unit; PPM, parts per million.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval simulation for a tropical atmosphere having enhanced tropospheric ozone. Sounding data from Ascension Island on 27 September 1992, were used for the true profile, and the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere (tropical) was used for the first guess. This simulation was performed with large a priori error covariance (S x ). (a) Shows vertical character of true, first guess, and retrieved ozone profiles, as well as integrated ozone amounts for all iterations; and (b) illustrates true, first guess, and retrieved profiles ratioed to the true profile. DU, Dobson unit; PPM, parts per million.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved ozone sensitivity to systematic offsets in select forward model parameters for a tropical atmosphere: (a) addresses radiometric signal calibration, temperature profile, surface emissivity and temperature, and water-vapor profile, and (b) shows water-vapor continuum model nitrogen- and self-broadening coefficients and ozone half-widths and line strengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effects of component and total random errors on retrieved ozone for a tropical atmosphere. The vertical profile of background O3 level standard deviations (assumed in a priori information error covariance matrix formulation) is also depicted.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Errors in Retrieved Integrated Ozone Amountsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overall Error Impact on Retrieved Integrated Ozone Amountsa

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y = F x ,
F x - y T S - 1 F x - y + x - x 0 T S x - 1 x - x 0 .
y = F x i + x - x i F x x i ,
y = y i + K x i x - x i
K x i = F x x i ;
K x i x = y - y i + K x i x i with   cov K x i x = S ,
x = x 0 with   cov x = S x .
x i + 1 = x 0 + S x K x i T K x i S x K x i T + S - 1 × y - y i - K x i x 0 - x i ,
S = S x - 1 + K x T S - 1 K x - 1 .
y = F x ,   b + y ,
D y = S x - 1 + K x T S - 1 K x - 1 K x T S - 1 .
S m = D y S D y T .
S n = A x - I S x A x - I T .
S s = A b S b A b T .
K b = F b .
S ij = S ii S jj 1 / 2 exp - z i - z j 2 l 2
S ii = 1 SNR i 2 y i 2
K x i = 1 24 , j = p = F x 0 + δ x 0 - F x 0 δ x 0 p ,
σ = i = n m j = n m   Δ z i Δ z j S ij 1 / 2

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