Abstract

The design of a scalable optical local area network for multiprocessing systems is described. Each workstation has a parallel-fiber-ribbon optical link to a centralized complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) switch core, implemented on a single compact printed circuit board (PCB). When the Motorola Optobus fiber technology is used, each workstation has a data bandwidth of 6.4 Gbits/s to the core. A centralized switch core interconnecting 32 workstations supports a 204-Gbit/s aggregate data bandwidth. The switch core is based on a conventional broadcast-and-select architecture, implemented with parallel CMOS integrated circuits (IC’s). The switch core scales well; by incorporation of the CMOS optoelectronic IC’s with optical input–output, the electrical core can be reduced to a single-chip optoelectronic IC with terabit capacities. A prototype of an optoelectronic switch core has been fabricated and is described. The appeal of the architecture includes its reliance on commercially available parallel-fiber technology, its reliance on the well-developed markets of local area networks and networks of workstations, and its smooth scalability from the electrical to optical domains as technology matures.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (7)

D. Clark, “Breaking the teraflops barrier,” IEEE Comput. 30(2), 12–14 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, M. Horowitz, “Tiny Tera: a packet switch core,” IEEE Micro. 17, 26–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Galles, “Spider: a high-speed network interconnect,” IEEE Micro. 17, 34–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, “Design principles for practical self-routing nonblocking switching networks with O(NlogN) bit complexity,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 1057–1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signaling,” IEEE Micro. 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Keyworth, D. J. Corazza, J. N. McMullin, “Single-step fabrication of refractive microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2198–2202 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral Reed–Solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 18, 144–150 (1997).

1996 (7)

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

T. Lewis, “The next 10,0002 years: parts 1,” IEEE Comput. 29(4), 64–70 (1996);“Part 2,” IEEE Comput. 29(5), 78–86 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Scott, “The gigaring channel,” IEEE Micro. 16, 27–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Anderson, D. E. Culler, D. A. Patterson, “A case for NOW (networks of workstations),” IEEE Micro. 16, 54–64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. J. Cloonan, “Comparative study of optical and electronic interconnection technologies for large asynchronous transfer mode packet switching applications,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1512–1523 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Y. Tamir, H. C. Chi, “Symmetric crossbar arbiters for VLSI communication switches,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 4, 13–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

Y. S. Yeh, M. G. Hluchyj, A. S. Acampora, “The knockout switch: a simple modular architecture for high performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 5, 1274–1283 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, “Input vs. output queueing on a space division packet switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1247–1356 (1987).

Abali, B.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Acampora, A. S.

Y. S. Yeh, M. G. Hluchyj, A. S. Acampora, “The knockout switch: a simple modular architecture for high performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 5, 1274–1283 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akkineni, S.

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. E.

T. E. Anderson, D. E. Culler, D. A. Patterson, “A case for NOW (networks of workstations),” IEEE Micro. 16, 54–64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, M. G.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Beckman, M. G.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Bender, C. A.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992), Chap. 2.

Blahut, R. E.

R. E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983).

Booth, R. C.

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Campbell, R. H.

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, T.

T. Chaney, J. A. Fingerhut, M. Flucke, J. S. Turner, “Design of a gigabit ATM switch,” Tech. Rep. WUSC-96-07 (Applied Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 1996).

Chi, H. C.

Y. Tamir, H. C. Chi, “Symmetric crossbar arbiters for VLSI communication switches,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 4, 13–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Choquette, K. D.

E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

Chun, C. K. Y.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

D. Clark, “Breaking the teraflops barrier,” IEEE Comput. 30(2), 12–14 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, “Comparative study of optical and electronic interconnection technologies for large asynchronous transfer mode packet switching applications,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1512–1523 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Corazza, D. J.

Crossland, W. A.

W. A. Crossland, T. D. Wilkinson, “Optically transparent switching in telecommunications using ferroelectric liquid crystals over silicon VLSI circuits,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 22–23.

Crow, J. D.

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Culler, D. E.

T. E. Anderson, D. E. Culler, D. A. Patterson, “A case for NOW (networks of workstations),” IEEE Micro. 16, 54–64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Dahringer, D.

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
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C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
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E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
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Izzard, M.

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, M. Horowitz, “Tiny Tera: a packet switch core,” IEEE Micro. 17, 26–33 (1997).
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Jan, W. Y.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

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C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jurrat, R.

E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

Kang, S. M.

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
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Kiamilev, F. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
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Kohama, Y.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
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Kossives, D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Kuo, S. M.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lebby, M.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
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Lee, H. C.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
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Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

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Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Lockwood, J. W.

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marbot, R.

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, M. Horowitz, “Tiny Tera: a packet switch core,” IEEE Micro. 17, 26–33 (1997).
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McMullin, J. N.

Mekkittikul, A.

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, M. Horowitz, “Tiny Tera: a packet switch core,” IEEE Micro. 17, 26–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, “Input vs. output queueing on a space division packet switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1247–1356 (1987).

Morikuni, J. J.

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Nakahara, T.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nathanson, B. J.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nation, W. G.

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral Reed–Solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 18, 144–150 (1997).

Nezamzadeh, R.

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Nuss, M. C.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Ohiso, Y.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Owicki, S. S.

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D. A.

T. E. Anderson, D. E. Culler, D. A. Patterson, “A case for NOW (networks of workstations),” IEEE Micro. 16, 54–64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hennessey, D. A. Patterson, Computer Architecture, A Quantatative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan-Kauffman, San Francisco, 1995).

Potter, F.

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

Poulton, J.

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signaling,” IEEE Micro. 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reibaldi, V.

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

Reiley, D. J.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Richards, G. W.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Rozier, R. G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

S. J. Hinterlong, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “An ATM switching system demonstration using a 40 Gb/s throughput smart pixel opto-electronic VLSI chip,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 47–48.

Saxe, J. B.

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, D. B.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scott, S.

S. Scott, “The gigaring channel,” IEEE Micro. 16, 27–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shea, D. G.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, S.

S. Sherif, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Design and implementation of a field programmable smart pixel array,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 78–79.

Shieh, C. L.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shook, S. G.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, R. D.

E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

Sridharan, S. K.

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral Reed–Solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 18, 144–150 (1997).

Stucke, R. F.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stunkel, C. B.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Supmonchai, B.

T. H. Szymanski, B. Supmonchai, “Reconfigurable computing with optical backplanes—an economic argument for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 321–328.
[CrossRef]

Swetz, R. A.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, T. H.

T. H. Szymanski, “Design principles for practical self-routing nonblocking switching networks with O(NlogN) bit complexity,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 1057–1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Szymanski, B. Supmonchai, “Reconfigurable computing with optical backplanes—an economic argument for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 321–328.
[CrossRef]

S. Sherif, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Design and implementation of a field programmable smart pixel array,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 78–79.

Tamir, Y.

Y. Tamir, H. C. Chi, “Symmetric crossbar arbiters for VLSI communication switches,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 4, 13–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, C. P.

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, K. S.

K. S. Trivedi, Probability & Statistics with Reliability, Queueing, and Computer Science Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982), Chaps. 3 and 4.

Tsao, M.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. T.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Turner, J. S.

T. Chaney, J. A. Fingerhut, M. Flucke, J. S. Turner, “Design of a gigabit ATM switch,” Tech. Rep. WUSC-96-07 (Applied Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 1996).

Varker, P. R.

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
[CrossRef]

Webb, B.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
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Wilkinson, T. D.

W. A. Crossland, T. D. Wilkinson, “Optically transparent switching in telecommunications using ferroelectric liquid crystals over silicon VLSI circuits,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 22–23.

Wilmsen, C. W.

E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

Woodward, T. K.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI’96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 94–100.
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Yeh, Y. S.

Y. S. Yeh, M. G. Hluchyj, A. S. Acampora, “The knockout switch: a simple modular architecture for high performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 5, 1274–1283 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zerrouk, B.

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. (1)

T. E. Anderson, S. S. Owicki, J. B. Saxe, C. P. Thacker, “High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 11, 319–352 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IBM Syst. J. (1)

C. B. Stunkel, D. G. Shea, B. Abali, M. G. Atkins, C. A. Bender, D. G. Grice, P. Hochschild, D. J. Joseph, B. J. Nathanson, R. A. Swetz, R. F. Stucke, M. Tsao, P. R. Varker, “The SP2 high-performance switch,” IBM Syst. J. 34, 185–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. (2)

T. Lewis, “The next 10,0002 years: parts 1,” IEEE Comput. 29(4), 64–70 (1996);“Part 2,” IEEE Comput. 29(5), 78–86 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Clark, “Breaking the teraflops barrier,” IEEE Comput. 30(2), 12–14 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Y. S. Yeh, M. G. Hluchyj, A. S. Acampora, “The knockout switch: a simple modular architecture for high performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 5, 1274–1283 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro. (6)

T. E. Anderson, D. E. Culler, D. A. Patterson, “A case for NOW (networks of workstations),” IEEE Micro. 16, 54–64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, M. Izzard, A. Mekkittikul, W. Ellersick, M. Horowitz, “Tiny Tera: a packet switch core,” IEEE Micro. 17, 26–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Scott, “The gigaring channel,” IEEE Micro. 16, 27–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Galles, “Spider: a high-speed network interconnect,” IEEE Micro. 17, 34–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Engebretsen, D. M. Kuchta, R. C. Booth, J. D. Crow, W. G. Nation, “Parallel fiber-optic SCI links,” IEEE Micro. 16, 20–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signaling,” IEEE Micro. 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, “Input vs. output queueing on a space division packet switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1247–1356 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B (1)

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low-cost, high performance optical interconnect,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 532–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

T. H. Szymanski, “Design principles for practical self-routing nonblocking switching networks with O(NlogN) bit complexity,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 1057–1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. (1)

Y. Tamir, H. C. Chi, “Symmetric crossbar arbiters for VLSI communication switches,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 4, 13–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. W. Lockwood, H. Duan, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, S. Akkineni, R. H. Campbell, “Scalable optoelectronic ATM networks: the iPOINT fully functional testbed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1093–1103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral Reed–Solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 18, 144–150 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. J. Cloonan, “Comparative study of optical and electronic interconnection technologies for large asynchronous transfer mode packet switching applications,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1512–1523 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Real-Time Mag. (1)

B. Zerrouk, A. Greiner, V. Reibaldi, F. Potter, A. Derieux, R. Marbot, R. Nezamzadeh, “The HIC high speed link technology and associated router,” Real-Time Mag. 3, 73–77 (1996).

Other (20)

Further information will be available in a future paper entitled “Fast self-routing concentrators for optoelectronic IC’s,” by T. H. Szymanski and B. Supmonchai. B. Supmonchai is with the Microelectronics and Computer Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2A7.

H. W. Johnson, M. Graham, High-Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black Magic (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993), Chaps. 4–6.

BiCMOS Design Kit V2.0 for Synopsys, Canadian Microelectronics Corporation, Carruthers Hall, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada, 1996.

F. E. E. Frietman, Opto-Electronic Processing and Networking: A Design Study (Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands, 1995).

E. M. Hayes, R. D. Snyder, R. Jurrat, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. Q. Hou, “8 × 8 array of smart pixels fabricated through the Vitesse foundry integrating MESFET, MSM, and VCSEL elements,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 103–104.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. T. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. Dahringer, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4,000 optical flip-chip-bonded GaAs/AlGaAS MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distributed shared memory architecture. I/O, input–output; E/O, electrical–optical.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EO interface module. TX, transmitter; RX, receiver.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical 256-bit packet format (format reconfigurable).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Broadcast-and-select switch core. WS, workstation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data plane of a 4-to-2 daisy-chain concentrator (dashed cell not needed).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Packaging of the FPGA-based switch core.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical diodes on a CMOS–SEED IC, which act as I/O’s for the 2-D array of optical bits. (See Ref. 39.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Representation of the optical output of a 1-D array of 1-D parallel fiber ribbons after 4-to-1 compression.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Eye diagram of Motorola Optobus fibers at 600 Mbits/s. (b) Eye diagram of Motorola Optobus fibers at 800 Mbits/s. (c) Waveform of Motorola Optobus fibers at 600 Mbits/s. (d) Waveform of Motorola Optobus fibers at 800 Mbits/s.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Probability of undetected error, after error control, versus BER in fiber. (b) Mean time to undetected error, after error control, versus BER in fiber.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) MTTF of the system of workstations with a varying number of spares (32 out of 32 + s workstations). (b) MTTF of the overall system composed of the switch core (16-out-of-18 FPGA’s) and the workstations (32-out-of-36 workstations).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Projections for CMOS–SEED Technology8,38

Equations (7)

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PB = N α j = n + 1 j - n exp - α / N α / N j j ! ,
Pr undetected   error   in   packet b n + 1 2 m + 1 2 p 4 1 - p n + 1 m + 1 - 4 ,
MTTE system = Pr undetected   error   per   bit × transmission bandwidth - 1 .
R series system t = exp - t   i = 1 n   λ i .
R m - out - of - n t = i = m n n i i - 1 m - 1 - 1 i - m exp - i λ t ,
MTTF m - out - of - n = i = m n 1 i λ .
MTTF overall   =   min MTTF switch - core ,   MTTF workstations .

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