Abstract

The technical issues involved in applying vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s) to parallel optical interconnection systems are discussed from the viewpoint of their application to asynchronous transfer mode switching and parallel computer systems. We also discuss approaches to designing a VCSEL array structure for high-speed modulation and the effect of pixel-performance homogeneity on the transmission bandwidth and power consumption. We review monolithic and hybrid integration technologies for VCSEL-based smart-pixel arrays, and we estimate the maximum pixel number and input–output throughput allowed in a chip, considering the power consumption and pixel homogeneity. We show that a one-chip optoelectronic parallel processing system comprising more than 1000 processor elements is possible when smart-pixel arrays are fabricated under the 0.25-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor design rule.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Kurokawa, “Study of surface-normal photonic switches for broadband networks at NTT,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 128–135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.
  3. R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Hahn, “POLO-parallel optical links for gigabyte data communications,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 368–375.
  7. A. F. Benner, “Programmer-level implications of optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 196–207 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.
  10. A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.
  15. K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’91), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 165–168.
  16. K. Hamanaka, “Optical bus interconnection system using Selfoc lenses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1222–1224 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Szymanski, “A photonic backplane architecture for broadband switching,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 86–99 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Koyanagi, “Optical interconnection using polyimide waveguide for multi-chip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 329–342.
  21. T. Kurokawa, S. Oikawa, “Optical waveguide intersections without light leak,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1033–1037 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. L. Jewell, “VCSEL-based optical interconnections at inter-box distances and shorter,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 229–243.
  23. D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).
  31. S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. S. Jin, V. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Integration of microlaser arrays with thinned and drilled CMOS silicon driver arrays,” in Technical Digest of the 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC’96), (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 68–69.
  35. S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing system with reconfigurable optical implementation,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 156–175.
  38. T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (8)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (11)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

Abe, H.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, P. J.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D. D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbic, D. I.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bendett, M.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, “Programmer-level implications of optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 196–207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brooke, M. A.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

Bunchanan, B.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. K. Y.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Cloonan, T. J.

Coldren, L. A.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crow, J. D.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DeWeerth, S. P.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, K.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faudskar, C. C.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fike, S. M.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foley, B. M.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Fukuda, H.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, S.

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Genda, K.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, K. H.

K. H. Hahn, “POLO-parallel optical links for gigabyte data communications,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 368–375.

Hamanaka, K.

Hanatani, S.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Herron, M. J.

Hino, S.

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Hirano, M.

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

Holland, W. A.

R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing system with reconfigurable optical implementation,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 156–175.

Ito, K.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, Y.

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. L.

J. L. Jewell, “VCSEL-based optical interconnections at inter-box distances and shorter,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 229–243.

Jin, M. S.

M. S. Jin, V. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Integration of microlaser arrays with thinned and drilled CMOS silicon driver arrays,” in Technical Digest of the 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC’96), (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 68–69.

Jokerst, N. M.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kahringer, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, Y.

Kato, T.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, T.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kilcoyne, S. P.

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, T.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kohama, Y.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Kossives, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koyabu, K.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koyanagi, M.

M. Koyanagi, “Optical interconnection using polyimide waveguide for multi-chip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 329–342.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. M.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Kurokawa, T.

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurokawa, S. Oikawa, “Optical waveguide intersections without light leak,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1033–1037 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurokawa, “Study of surface-normal photonic switches for broadband networks at NTT,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lebby, M.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Lee, H. C.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Jin, V. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Integration of microlaser arrays with thinned and drilled CMOS silicon driver arrays,” in Technical Digest of the 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC’96), (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 68–69.

Lee, S. L.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, D. K.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacDougal, M. H.

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, N. M.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mars, D. E.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matso, S.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’91), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 165–168.

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

Mirin, R. P.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miyaho, N.

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

Morris, T. G.

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Motegi, Y.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muehlner, D. J.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’91), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 165–168.

Nordin, R. A.

R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohiso, Y.

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

Oka, A.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ono, Y.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Otazo, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V.

M. S. Jin, V. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Integration of microlaser arrays with thinned and drilled CMOS silicon driver arrays,” in Technical Digest of the 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC’96), (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 68–69.

Peters, F. H.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. G.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. M.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakano, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’91), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 165–168.

Sasaki, S.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Schneider, R. P.

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, D. B.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Scott, J. W.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shahid, M. A.

R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shang, A. Z.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, C. L.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Shiomoto, K.

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

Shook, S. G.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Sitoh, K.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, T.

T. Szymanski, “A photonic backplane architecture for broadband switching,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 86–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tadokoro, T.

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

Takahashi, T.

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

Takai, A.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

Takenouchi, H.

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Thibeault, B. J.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, M.

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

Tseng, B.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, T.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsunetsugu, H.

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uomi, K.

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, A.

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

Webb, B.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

Wong, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

Yamanaka, N.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, K.

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. B.

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. M. Margalit, D. I. Barbic, K. Streubel, R. P. Mirin, D. E. Mars, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, “Laterally oxidized long wavelength cw vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 471–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, K. Tateno, T. Tadokoro, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, “1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with wafer-fused InGaAsP/InP-GaAs/AlAs DBRs,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1483–1484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Lear, K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, S. P. Kilcoyne, K. M. Geib, “Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with 50% power conversion efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 208–209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, K. Tateno, T. Nakahara, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, “Use of polyimide bonding for hybrid integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser on a silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1148–1149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gb/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 348–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (11)

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matso, C. Amano, H. Iwamura, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic switches using micro-beam optical interconnections,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 358–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fike, B. Bunchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 × 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to a silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFET’s, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, T. Kurokawa, “Novel technology for hybrid integration of photonic and electronic circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1507–1509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Kahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohiso, K. Tateno, Y. Kohama, A. Wakatsuki, H. Tsunetsugu, T. Kurokawa, “Flip-chip bonded 0.85-μm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array on an AlGaAs substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1115–1117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, F. H. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, M. G. Peters, S. L. Lee, L. A. Coldren, “High-power temperature-insensitive gain-offset InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 129–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, A. Oka, T. Kawano, T. Tsuchiya, K. Sitoh, K. Uomi, Y. Ono, “Low threshold (3mA) 1.3 μm InGaAsP MQW laser array on a p-type substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 954–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B (1)

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki, “320 Gb/s high speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manu. Technol. B 18, 83–91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Y.-M. Wong, D. J. Muehlner, C. C. Faudskar, D. K. Lewis, P. J. Anthony, M. Bendett, D. M. Kuchta, J. D. Crow, “Technology development of a high-density 32-channel 16-Gb/s optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the optoelectronics technology consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1013 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Nordin, W. A. Holland, M. A. Shahid, “Advanced optical interconnection technology in switching equipment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 987–994 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Takai, T. Kato, S. Yamashita, S. Hanatani, Y. Motegi, K. Ito, H. Abe, “200-Mbit/s/ch 100-m optical subsystem interconnections using 8-channel 1.3-mm laser diode arrays and single-mode fiber arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 260–270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

Other (12)

M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing system with reconfigurable optical implementation,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 156–175.

M. S. Jin, V. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Integration of microlaser arrays with thinned and drilled CMOS silicon driver arrays,” in Technical Digest of the 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC’96), (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 68–69.

D. B. Schwartz, C. K. Y. Chun, B. M. Foley, D. H. Hartman, M. Lebby, H. C. Lee, C. L. Shieh, S. M. Kuo, S. G. Shook, B. Webb, “A low cost, high performance optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 376–379.

T. Kurokawa, “Study of surface-normal photonic switches for broadband networks at NTT,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Miyaho, M. Hirano, Y. Takagi, K. Shiomoto, T. Takahashi, “An ATM switching system architecture for first generation of broadband services,” in Proceedings of the International Switching Symposium (ISS’92) (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1992), pp. 285–289.

K. H. Hahn, “POLO-parallel optical links for gigabyte data communications,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 368–375.

A. F. Benner, “Programmer-level implications of optical interconnects,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 196–207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Szymanski, “A photonic backplane architecture for broadband switching,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc. SPIE2692, 86–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Koyanagi, “Optical interconnection using polyimide waveguide for multi-chip module,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 329–342.

J. L. Jewell, “VCSEL-based optical interconnections at inter-box distances and shorter,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. CR62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 229–243.

T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, M. Yamaguchi, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Active alignment of massively parallel free-space board-to-board optical interconnections using an adjustable liquid prism,” in Technical Digest of 1996 International Topical Meeting on Photonics in Switching (PS’96), (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1996), paper PThD6.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’91), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 165–168.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical interconnection scheme in ATM-switching systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical interconnection scheme in parallel computer systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of free-space optical interconnections between boards.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of optical waveguide circuit interconnections between LSI chips on which VCSEL’s and PD’s are mounted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flip-chip-bonded 8 × 8 VCSEL array on an AlGaAs substrate: (a) Flip-chip-bonded structure of VCSEL arrays. (b) Comparison of small-signal modulation response of a center pixel in the array. The solid curve indicates a flip-chip-bonded array with a bottom-emitting structure operated at 2.6 times the threshold current. The dotted curve indicates a wire-bonded array with a top-emitting structure operated at 3 times the threshold current. AR, antireflection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of (a) the threshold current of 64 elements across a VCSEL array on an AlGaAs substrate and (b) the photosensitivity of 64 elements across a GaAs p-i-n–PD array without antireflection (AR) coating. The diameters are 16 μm for the VCSEL and 50 μm for the p-i-n–PD array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated maximum bandwidth dependence on variations of the threshold current and the differential efficiency for high- and low-bias-current mode operations. In both modes, I th = 1 mA and I p = 5 mA. In the low-bias mode operation, τ n is assumed to be 2 ns. In the high-bias mode operation, the required bit-error rate is assumed to be less than 10-12. The assumed parameters are α = 0.03, η = 0.4, ηPD = 0.4, C PD = 0.5 pF, T e = 1500 K, Q = 7.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Structure of a monolithic VCSEL-based smart pixel: (a) Schematic cross section of the device. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the device. MSM, metal–semiconductor–metal; DBR, distributed Bragg reflector.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Structure of a hybrid VCSEL-based smart pixel with polyimide bonding.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence on variations of the threshold current: (a) CMOS and I/O consumption power. (b) Maximum number of processor elements. Low-bias mode operation with I th = 1 mA, power-supplied voltage of 2.2 V, receiver power consumption of 5 mW, and a power dissipation limit of 30 W are assumed.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of Typical Parallel Fiber Link Systems

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ d = τ n ln I p - I b I p - I th ,
τ d max = τ n ln I p - 0.9 - x I th I p - 1 + x I th ,     0 x < 0.9 ,
I b = I th - x + 0.1 I th ,
B = 20 τ d max - 1 .
σ = 80 kT e C PD 1 / 2 B ,
B = α η η PD Q 80 kT e C PD 1 / 2 0.45 - x I p - I th - x + 1 × x + 0.1 I th - 2 xI th ,
P SP = P CMOS + P I / O ,
P CMOS = γ Nf ,
P TX 1 2   I p V .
I p = x + 1 - 0.9 - x exp - 1 / 20 B τ n I th 1 - exp - 1 / 20 B τ n .

Metrics