Abstract

Spaceborne visible-light images for observing the large angular extent of the solar corona require 0.1% differential broadband photometry over ∼1° sky bins. When we are using a CCD camera, this specification requires spreading unresolved images over many pixels. Large images ease correction for aberration or field curvature. Permitting large images allows simple and lightweight very-wide-angle designs employing spherical and toroidal mirrors and thick lenses that can view almost the entire sky. We present formulas and graphic results relating sky angle to focal-plane position and determining the tangential and sagittal focal surfaces governing image size at the CCD. Laboratory measurements with two prototype configurations confirm the calculations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. B. Mende, R. H. Eather, E. K. Aamodt, “Instrument for the monochromatic observation of all sky auroral images,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1691–1700 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. B. Mende, “Monochromatic imaging of the 6300 angstrom emissions from South Pole station,” Antarct. J. 19, 235–236 (1984).
  3. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1993), pp. 228–231.
  4. H. P. Brueggemann, Conic Mirrors (Focal Press, London, 1968), pp. 35–39.
  5. B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).
  6. B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).
  7. C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).
  8. B. V. Jackson, C. Leinnert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10,759–10,769 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Sol. Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).
  14. A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. V. Berry, “Reflections on a Christmas-tree bauble,” Phys. Ed. 7, 1–6 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 35.
  17. M. G. J. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air, translated by H. M. Kremer, revised by K. E. Brian Jay (Dover, New York, 1954), Section I-11.
  18. See, for example, the garden globe in Mole’s garden that “reflected everything all wrong and had a very pleasing effect,” in K. Grahame, The Wind in the Willows (Scribner’s, New York1954), Chap. 5 (Dulce Domum).
  19. See, for example, E. Hall, The Arnolfini Betrothal (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1994), describing the portrait and its wide-angle convex mirror behind, a painting from 1434 by Jan van Eyck.
  20. J. L. Locher, ed., Escher (Thames and Hudson, London, 1982), presenting five different drawings of spherical reflectors by M. C. Escher.
  21. P. S. Theocaris, “Properties of caustics from conic reflectors. 1: Meridional rays,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1705–1716 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, the Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Sect. 3.2.3, or see also the introductory discussion in Ref. 4.
  25. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), Sect. 5.3.
  26. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: a Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), p. 165.
  27. See, for example, Ref. 24, Chap. 10.
  28. Spectra-Tech Inc., 2 Research Drive, P.O. Box 869, Shelton, Conn., made the toroidal mirrors.

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

1991 (2)

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinnert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10,759–10,769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Sol. Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. B. Mende, “Monochromatic imaging of the 6300 angstrom emissions from South Pole station,” Antarct. J. 19, 235–236 (1984).

1977 (2)

1972 (1)

M. V. Berry, “Reflections on a Christmas-tree bauble,” Phys. Ed. 7, 1–6 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aamodt, E. K.

Acuña, M. H.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Altrock, R. C.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, “Reflections on a Christmas-tree bauble,” Phys. Ed. 7, 1–6 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C. H.

A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), Sect. 5.3.

Brueggemann, H. P.

H. P. Brueggemann, Conic Mirrors (Focal Press, London, 1968), pp. 35–39.

Buffington, A.

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Cook, J. W.

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Eather, R. H.

Galvin, A. B.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Gold, R. E.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Grahame, K.

See, for example, the garden globe in Mole’s garden that “reflected everything all wrong and had a very pleasing effect,” in K. Grahame, The Wind in the Willows (Scribner’s, New York1954), Chap. 5 (Dulce Domum).

Hall, E.

See, for example, E. Hall, The Arnolfini Betrothal (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1994), describing the portrait and its wide-angle convex mirror behind, a painting from 1434 by Jan van Eyck.

Harrison, R.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Hick, P.

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Hick, P. L.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Hick, P. P.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Howard, R. A.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Hudson, H. S.

A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Illing, R. M. E.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ipavich, F. M.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Jackson, B. V.

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinnert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10,759–10,769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Sol. Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Johnson, R. W.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1993), pp. 228–231.

Kahler, S. W.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Koehler, T. L.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1993), pp. 228–231.

Koomen, M. J.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Koomin, M.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Korendyke, C. L.

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Korendyke, C. M.

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Leinnert, C.

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinnert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10,759–10,769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Longhurst, R. S.

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 35.

Mende, S. B.

S. B. Mende, “Monochromatic imaging of the 6300 angstrom emissions from South Pole station,” Antarct. J. 19, 235–236 (1984).

S. B. Mende, R. H. Eather, E. K. Aamodt, “Instrument for the monochromatic observation of all sky auroral images,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1691–1700 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, D. J.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Minnaert, M. G. J.

M. G. J. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air, translated by H. M. Kremer, revised by K. E. Brian Jay (Dover, New York, 1954), Section I-11.

Prinz, D. K.

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Sheeley, N. R.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shields, J. E.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1993), pp. 228–231.

Slavin, J. A.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, the Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Sect. 3.2.3, or see also the introductory discussion in Ref. 4.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: a Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), p. 165.

Socker, D. G.

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

Theocaris, P. S.

Waltham, N. R.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

Webb, D. F.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), Sect. 5.3.

Antarct. J. (1)

S. B. Mende, “Monochromatic imaging of the 6300 angstrom emissions from South Pole station,” Antarct. J. 19, 235–236 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-Earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinnert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10,759–10,769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and Earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Ed. (1)

M. V. Berry, “Reflections on a Christmas-tree bauble,” Phys. Ed. 7, 1–6 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

A. Buffington, H. S. Hudson, C. H. Booth, “A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 688–697 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, C. H. Booth, H. S. Hudson, “Using image area to control CCD systematic errors in spaceborne photometric and astrometric time-series measurements,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 685–693 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Sol. Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1993), pp. 228–231.

H. P. Brueggemann, Conic Mirrors (Focal Press, London, 1968), pp. 35–39.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, R. C. Altrock, R. E. Gold, D. F. Webb, “The solar mass ejection imager,” in Solar Wind Eight, D. Winterhalter, J. T. Gosling, S. R. Habbal, W. S. Kurth, M. Neugebauer, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.382, 536–534 (1996).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomin, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, “PERSPECTIVE—a deep-space mission to investigate the Sun–Earth connection,” a proposal in response to NASA’s SMEX announcement of flight opportunity (June1997).

C. L. Korendyke, D. K. Prinz, D. G. Socker, R. A. Howard, J. W. Cook, A. Buffington, P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “All-sky and high resolution coronagraphs for ‘FIRE,’” a proposal in response to NASA’s Advanced Instrument Concepts for a Near-Sun Fly-by Mission announcement of development opportunity (January1996).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, the Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Sect. 3.2.3, or see also the introductory discussion in Ref. 4.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), Sect. 5.3.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: a Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), p. 165.

See, for example, Ref. 24, Chap. 10.

Spectra-Tech Inc., 2 Research Drive, P.O. Box 869, Shelton, Conn., made the toroidal mirrors.

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 35.

M. G. J. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air, translated by H. M. Kremer, revised by K. E. Brian Jay (Dover, New York, 1954), Section I-11.

See, for example, the garden globe in Mole’s garden that “reflected everything all wrong and had a very pleasing effect,” in K. Grahame, The Wind in the Willows (Scribner’s, New York1954), Chap. 5 (Dulce Domum).

See, for example, E. Hall, The Arnolfini Betrothal (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1994), describing the portrait and its wide-angle convex mirror behind, a painting from 1434 by Jan van Eyck.

J. L. Locher, ed., Escher (Thames and Hudson, London, 1982), presenting five different drawings of spherical reflectors by M. C. Escher.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics