Abstract

Epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3) thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrate were grown in situ by radio-frequency sputtering for optical waveguiding applications. The crystalline quality of the PbTiO3 films deposited at 550° C has been investigated through x-ray diffraction analysis. It indicates that thin films are completely c-axis oriented (rocking curve FWHM of 0.2° for the 001 reflection). The transmission spectrum method has been used to measure the dispersion of the refractive index. At 632.8 nm, the PbTiO3 film with an (001) orientation exhibits a refractive index of 2.61, which represents 98% of the bulk material. The prism-coupling technique has been also employed to determine the optical attenuation in the planar waveguide. In this study, we report a low propagation loss of 2.2 ± 0.2 dB/cm obtained in a PbTiO3 optical waveguide.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, “Longitudinal electrooptic effects and photosensitivities of lead zirconate titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 2059–2064 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Adachi, K. Wasa, “Electrooptic effects of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films prepared by rf planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 867–868 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. D. Theis, D. G. Shlom, “Domain structure of epitaxial PbTiO3 films grown on vicinal (001) SrTiO3,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, B. Kulwicki, A. Amin, A. Safari, eds. (IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, East Brunswick, N.J., 1996), Vol. I, pp. 491–494.
  4. Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kim, S. Baik, “Effects of surface structures of MgO (100) single crystal substrates on ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 95–100 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).
  9. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. L. Bragg, A. B. Pippard, “The form birefringence of macromolecules,” Acta Cryst. 6, 865–867 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1976), Sec. 111.
  12. V. I. Zametin, “Absorption edge anomalies in polar semiconductors and dielectrics at phase transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 625–640 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. D. Thacher, “Refractive index and surface layers of ceramics (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 compounds,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3210–3213 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Bennett, A. T. Glasman, in Optical Materials: Part 2, in Vol. 4 of Handbook of Laser Science and TechnologyM. L. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).
  15. R. Ulrich, R. Torge, “Measurements of thin films parameters with a prism coupler,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2901–2908 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Pelletier, F. Flory, Y. Yu, “Optical characterization of thin films by guided waves,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2918–2924 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, “Mode dispersion in diffused channel waveguides by the effective index method,” Appl. Opt. 16, 113–118 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Okamura, S. Yoshinaka, S. Yamamoto, “Measuring mode propagation losses of integrated optical waveguides: a simple method,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3892–3894 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, S. Baik, “Effects of surface structures of MgO (100) single crystal substrates on ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 95–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, “Longitudinal electrooptic effects and photosensitivities of lead zirconate titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 2059–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, F. Flory, Y. Yu, “Optical characterization of thin films by guided waves,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2918–2924 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

V. I. Zametin, “Absorption edge anomalies in polar semiconductors and dielectrics at phase transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 625–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

Y. Okamura, S. Yoshinaka, S. Yamamoto, “Measuring mode propagation losses of integrated optical waveguides: a simple method,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3892–3894 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Adachi, K. Wasa, “Electrooptic effects of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films prepared by rf planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 867–868 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1953 (1)

W. L. Bragg, A. B. Pippard, “The form birefringence of macromolecules,” Acta Cryst. 6, 865–867 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

H. Adachi, K. Wasa, “Electrooptic effects of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films prepared by rf planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 867–868 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. B.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Armani-Leplingard, F.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baertlein, C. D.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bai, G. R.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baik, S.

S. Kim, S. Baik, “Effects of surface structures of MgO (100) single crystal substrates on ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 95–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, P. M.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, A. T. Glasman, in Optical Materials: Part 2, in Vol. 4 of Handbook of Laser Science and TechnologyM. L. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).

Boulton, J. M.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bragg, W. L.

W. L. Bragg, A. B. Pippard, “The form birefringence of macromolecules,” Acta Cryst. 6, 865–867 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

Dogheche, E.

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

Fork, D. K.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Glasman, A. T.

J. M. Bennett, A. T. Glasman, in Optical Materials: Part 2, in Vol. 4 of Handbook of Laser Science and TechnologyM. L. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).

Guilloux-Viry, M.

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

Guo, D.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haertling, G. H.

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, “Longitudinal electrooptic effects and photosensitivities of lead zirconate titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 2059–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Jaber, B.

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. Baik, “Effects of surface structures of MgO (100) single crystal substrates on ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 95–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, J. J.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knittl, Z.

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1976), Sec. 111.

Land, C. E.

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, “Longitudinal electrooptic effects and photosensitivities of lead zirconate titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 2059–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Motakef, S.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

Pelletier, E.

Perrin, A.

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

Pippard, A. B.

W. L. Bragg, A. B. Pippard, “The form birefringence of macromolecules,” Acta Cryst. 6, 865–867 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Quackenbush, E. L.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rehn, L. E.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remiens, D.

B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rémiens, D.

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

Shlom, D. G.

C. D. Theis, D. G. Shlom, “Domain structure of epitaxial PbTiO3 films grown on vicinal (001) SrTiO3,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, B. Kulwicki, A. Amin, A. Safari, eds. (IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, East Brunswick, N.J., 1996), Vol. I, pp. 491–494.

Teowee, G.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thacher, P. D.

Theis, C. D.

C. D. Theis, D. G. Shlom, “Domain structure of epitaxial PbTiO3 films grown on vicinal (001) SrTiO3,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, B. Kulwicki, A. Amin, A. Safari, eds. (IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, East Brunswick, N.J., 1996), Vol. I, pp. 491–494.

Thierry, B.

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Uhlmann, D. R.

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Wasa, K.

H. Adachi, K. Wasa, “Electrooptic effects of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films prepared by rf planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 867–868 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yoshinaka, S.

Yu, Y.

Zametin, V. I.

V. I. Zametin, “Absorption edge anomalies in polar semiconductors and dielectrics at phase transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 625–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Acta Cryst. (1)

W. L. Bragg, A. B. Pippard, “The form birefringence of macromolecules,” Acta Cryst. 6, 865–867 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Adachi, K. Wasa, “Electrooptic effects of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films prepared by rf planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 867–868 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, M. Foster, D. Guo, H. Zang, G. R. Bai, P. M. Baldo, L. E. Rehn, “Growth of high quality single-domain single crystal films of PbTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1106–1108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Integ. Ferroelectr. (2)

B. Jaber, E. Dogheche, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, “Influence of the deposition parameters on physico-chemical and optical properties of sputtered PbTiO3 thin films,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 225–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jaber, D. Rémiens, B. Thierry, A. Perrin, M. Guilloux-Viry, “Influence of the growth temperature on the epitaxial quality of PbTiO3 films deposited in-situ by sputtering,” Integ. Ferroelectr. 13, 214–224 (1997).

Integr. Ferroelectr. (1)

G. Teowee, C. D. Baertlein, S. Motakef, E. L. Quackenbush, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Sol-gel derived La-doped PbTiO3 waveguides,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 11, 47–58 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, “Longitudinal electrooptic effects and photosensitivities of lead zirconate titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 2059–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Jaber, D. Remiens, B. Thierry, “Substrate temperature and target composition effect on PbTiO3 thin films produced in-situ by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1182–1184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

S. Kim, S. Baik, “Effects of surface structures of MgO (100) single crystal substrates on ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 95–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, J. J. Kingston, G. B. Anderson, “Thin films for integrated optics applications,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 189–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

V. I. Zametin, “Absorption edge anomalies in polar semiconductors and dielectrics at phase transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 625–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. M. Bennett, A. T. Glasman, in Optical Materials: Part 2, in Vol. 4 of Handbook of Laser Science and TechnologyM. L. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).

Z. Knittl, Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1976), Sec. 111.

C. D. Theis, D. G. Shlom, “Domain structure of epitaxial PbTiO3 films grown on vicinal (001) SrTiO3,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, B. Kulwicki, A. Amin, A. Safari, eds. (IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, East Brunswick, N.J., 1996), Vol. I, pp. 491–494.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray diffraction patterns of the PbTiO3/SrTiO3 structure, and x-ray rocking curves of the (001) plane at 550 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission spectrum of PbTiO3 thin film on SrTiO3 (100) substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion of the refractive index of PbTiO3 films (■, data for single-crystal PbTiO3 in Ref. 13).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed m-line of the guided TE0 mode in the PbTiO3 thin film on SrTiO3 at λ = 632.8 nm (coupling realized at the incident angle θ = +2.60°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion of propagation constants N m of the modes versus the film thickness for a PbTiO3/SrTiO3 structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scattered intensity measured from PbTiO3 thin films by use of prism coupling (TE0 mode).

Equations (1)

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Tf = 1 1 + 1 Tm - 1 Ts

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