Abstract

We describe a compact fiber-optic setup for three-dimensional topometry. The measuring principle is based on low-coherence interferometry in combination with a confocal microscope. Integrating an optical arrangement based on compact disk optics together with fiber optics into one sensor yields a compact unit. The sensor has a numerical aperture of 0.45 and is suitable for measuring large surface slopes with high spatial resolution. Further, a depth measuring range of more than 1 mm can be achieved. The capabilities of our setup for three-dimensional measurements are demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1997

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Windecker, P. Haible, H. J. Tiziani, “Fast coherence scanning interferometry for smooth, rough and spherical surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2059–2069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Caber, “Interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3438–3441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, “Optisches Autofokus-Profilometer,” Tech. Messen 60, 267–270 (1993).

1992

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermesstechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 53–59 (1992).

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces with the coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 7, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hitzenberger, “Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6637–6642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1983

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Lutz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Breitmeier, U.

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermesstechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 53–59 (1992).

Caber, P. J.

P. J. Caber, “Interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3438–3441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chim, S. S. C.

Dresel, T.

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces with the coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 7, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Lutz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, M.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franze, B.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Haible, P.

R. Windecker, P. Haible, H. J. Tiziani, “Fast coherence scanning interferometry for smooth, rough and spherical surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2059–2069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces with the coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 7, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Hitzenberger, C.

C. Hitzenberger, “Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6637–6642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

Izatt, J. A.

Juchem, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Lutz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Lee, B. S.

Lin, C. P.

Lutz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Lutz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Schuman, J. S.

Strand, T. C.

Swanson, E. A.

Tiziani, H. J.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, P. Haible, H. J. Tiziani, “Fast coherence scanning interferometry for smooth, rough and spherical surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2059–2069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Venzke, H.

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces with the coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 7, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windecker, R.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, P. Haible, H. J. Tiziani, “Fast coherence scanning interferometry for smooth, rough and spherical surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2059–2069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, “Optisches Autofokus-Profilometer,” Tech. Messen 60, 267–270 (1993).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Lutz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Two methods for fast coherence tomography and topometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, P. Haible, H. J. Tiziani, “Fast coherence scanning interferometry for smooth, rough and spherical surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2059–2069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelektron.

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermesstechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 53–59 (1992).

Opt. Lett.

Tech. Messen

R. Windecker, “Optisches Autofokus-Profilometer,” Tech. Messen 60, 267–270 (1993).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a conventional low-coherence interferometric setup. The OPD is scanned in the reference arm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the high-aperture low-coherence interferometric setup. The OPD is scanned in the object arm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor head based on conventional CD optics. The lens is scanned vertically in the head’s resonant mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the evaluation process of the analog-based coherence measuring system for resonant scanning devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal after preprocessing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3-D topography of one side of a German 50-pfennig coin. The height values are not calibrated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3-D topography of solder paste on an electronic board.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3-D topography of a solder bump on an integrated circuit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross section of the measurement of Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

3-D topography of a used key file.

Equations (2)

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I = I obj + I ref + 2 I obj I ref   γ z - z obj ,   Δ λ × cos 2 π λ 0 z - z obj + φ 0 ,
I = I obj + I ref + 2 I obj I ref   γ Vt - z obj - z t 0 ,   Δ λ × cos 2 π λ 0 Vt - z obj - z t 0 + φ 0 ,

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