Abstract

A diagnostic technique based on excited-state complex (exciplex) fluorescence is reported for visualization of diffusion layers formed between mixing liquids. High-spatial-resolution instantaneous images and time-sequenced images are presented. Single drops and jets are visualized mixing in a liquid pool. Time-resolved images of exciplex fluorescence have also been obtained that provide information on the duration of the mixing event and the length and time scales of the diffusion process. The results demonstrate that the technique has the potential to provide new information concerning the physics of liquid mixing processes.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. M. Paushkin, The Chemical Composition and Properties of Fuels for Jet Propulsion (Pergamon, New York, 1962).
  2. E. A. Hurlbert, J. L. Sun, B. Zhang, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, V. Yang, W. E. Anderson, eds. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 169, pp. 113–142.
  3. M. J. Farmer, “A study of hypergolic propellant reaction rates using the chemical delay time,” M.S. thesis (The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, 1997).
  4. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).
  5. K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. A. Dahm, P. E. Dimotakis, “Mixing at large Schmidt number in the self similar far field of turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 217, 299–330 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Koochesfahani, P. E. Dimotakis, “Laser induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer,” AIAA J. 23, 1700–1707 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Coppeta, C. Rogers, “Mixing measurements using laser induced fluorescence,” AIAA paper 95-0167, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).
  10. A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Winter, J. C. Hermanson, G. M. Dobbs, “Imaging of molecular mixing in a gas phase turbulent jet by collisional energy transfer fluorescence,” AIAA paper 92-0381, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).
  12. I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).
  13. S. Greenfield, “Development of a system to measure the temperature of a hydrocarbon fuel droplet injected into a turbulent cross-flow using exciplex thermometry,” Ph.D dissertation (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).
  14. L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Ondus, D. A. Santavicca, “The development of an exciplex vapor/liquid visualization technique to study the effect of an acoustic field on a droplet,” Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) Publ. No. 631 (The John Hopkins University, Columbia, Md., 1995), pp. 167–177.
  17. P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, M. E. A. Bardsley, “On the quantitative application of exciplex fluorescence to engine sprays,” in 1993 SAE Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, 6–10 February 1993 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993), paper 930870.

1996

D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. J. A. Dahm, P. E. Dimotakis, “Mixing at large Schmidt number in the self similar far field of turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 217, 299–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. M. Koochesfahani, P. E. Dimotakis, “Laser induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer,” AIAA J. 23, 1700–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bardsley, M. E. A.

P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, M. E. A. Bardsley, “On the quantitative application of exciplex fluorescence to engine sprays,” in 1993 SAE Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, 6–10 February 1993 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993), paper 930870.

Barlow, R. S.

K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
[CrossRef]

Berlman, I. B.

I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).

Bracco, F. V.

P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, M. E. A. Bardsley, “On the quantitative application of exciplex fluorescence to engine sprays,” in 1993 SAE Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, 6–10 February 1993 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993), paper 930870.

Buch, K. A.

K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
[CrossRef]

Coppeta, J.

J. Coppeta, C. Rogers, “Mixing measurements using laser induced fluorescence,” AIAA paper 95-0167, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Dahm, W. J. A.

W. J. A. Dahm, P. E. Dimotakis, “Mixing at large Schmidt number in the self similar far field of turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 217, 299–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
[CrossRef]

Dimotakis, P. E.

W. J. A. Dahm, P. E. Dimotakis, “Mixing at large Schmidt number in the self similar far field of turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 217, 299–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Koochesfahani, P. E. Dimotakis, “Laser induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer,” AIAA J. 23, 1700–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Winter, J. C. Hermanson, G. M. Dobbs, “Imaging of molecular mixing in a gas phase turbulent jet by collisional energy transfer fluorescence,” AIAA paper 92-0381, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

Driscoll, J. F.

D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

Everest, D.

D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, M. J.

M. J. Farmer, “A study of hypergolic propellant reaction rates using the chemical delay time,” M.S. thesis (The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, 1997).

Feikema, D. A.

D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Felton, P. G.

P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, M. E. A. Bardsley, “On the quantitative application of exciplex fluorescence to engine sprays,” in 1993 SAE Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, 6–10 February 1993 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993), paper 930870.

Greenfield, S.

S. Greenfield, “Development of a system to measure the temperature of a hydrocarbon fuel droplet injected into a turbulent cross-flow using exciplex thermometry,” Ph.D dissertation (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

Hanson, R. K.

A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hermanson, J. C.

M. Winter, J. C. Hermanson, G. M. Dobbs, “Imaging of molecular mixing in a gas phase turbulent jet by collisional energy transfer fluorescence,” AIAA paper 92-0381, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

Hurlbert, E. A.

E. A. Hurlbert, J. L. Sun, B. Zhang, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, V. Yang, W. E. Anderson, eds. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 169, pp. 113–142.

Koochesfahani, M. M.

M. M. Koochesfahani, P. E. Dimotakis, “Laser induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer,” AIAA J. 23, 1700–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lozano, A.

A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Melton, L. A.

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ondus, M. S.

M. S. Ondus, D. A. Santavicca, “The development of an exciplex vapor/liquid visualization technique to study the effect of an acoustic field on a droplet,” Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) Publ. No. 631 (The John Hopkins University, Columbia, Md., 1995), pp. 167–177.

Paushkin, Y. M.

Y. M. Paushkin, The Chemical Composition and Properties of Fuels for Jet Propulsion (Pergamon, New York, 1962).

Rogers, C.

J. Coppeta, C. Rogers, “Mixing measurements using laser induced fluorescence,” AIAA paper 95-0167, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Rotunno, A. A.

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Santavicca, D. A.

M. S. Ondus, D. A. Santavicca, “The development of an exciplex vapor/liquid visualization technique to study the effect of an acoustic field on a droplet,” Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) Publ. No. 631 (The John Hopkins University, Columbia, Md., 1995), pp. 167–177.

Sun, J. L.

E. A. Hurlbert, J. L. Sun, B. Zhang, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, V. Yang, W. E. Anderson, eds. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 169, pp. 113–142.

Verdieck, J. F.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Winter, J. C. Hermanson, G. M. Dobbs, “Imaging of molecular mixing in a gas phase turbulent jet by collisional energy transfer fluorescence,” AIAA paper 92-0381, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

Yip, B.

A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

E. A. Hurlbert, J. L. Sun, B. Zhang, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, V. Yang, W. E. Anderson, eds. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 169, pp. 113–142.

AIAA J.

D. A. Feikema, D. Everest, J. F. Driscoll, “Images of dissipation layers to quantify mixing near the base of a turbulent jet,” AIAA J. 34 (12), 2531–2538 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Koochesfahani, P. E. Dimotakis, “Laser induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer,” AIAA J. 23, 1700–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Rotunno, M. Winter, G. M. Dobbs, L. A. Melton, “Direct calibration procedures for exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization of fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 71, 247–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids

A. Lozano, B. Yip, R. K. Hanson, “Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 13, 369–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech.

W. J. A. Dahm, P. E. Dimotakis, “Mixing at large Schmidt number in the self similar far field of turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 217, 299–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Coppeta, C. Rogers, “Mixing measurements using laser induced fluorescence,” AIAA paper 95-0167, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Y. M. Paushkin, The Chemical Composition and Properties of Fuels for Jet Propulsion (Pergamon, New York, 1962).

E. A. Hurlbert, J. L. Sun, B. Zhang, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability, V. Yang, W. E. Anderson, eds. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 169, pp. 113–142.

M. J. Farmer, “A study of hypergolic propellant reaction rates using the chemical delay time,” M.S. thesis (The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, 1997).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

K. A. Buch, W. J. A. Dahm, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Structure of equilibrium reaction rate fields in turbulent jet diffusion flames,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 295–301.
[CrossRef]

M. Winter, J. C. Hermanson, G. M. Dobbs, “Imaging of molecular mixing in a gas phase turbulent jet by collisional energy transfer fluorescence,” AIAA paper 92-0381, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).

S. Greenfield, “Development of a system to measure the temperature of a hydrocarbon fuel droplet injected into a turbulent cross-flow using exciplex thermometry,” Ph.D dissertation (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

M. S. Ondus, D. A. Santavicca, “The development of an exciplex vapor/liquid visualization technique to study the effect of an acoustic field on a droplet,” Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) Publ. No. 631 (The John Hopkins University, Columbia, Md., 1995), pp. 167–177.

P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, M. E. A. Bardsley, “On the quantitative application of exciplex fluorescence to engine sprays,” in 1993 SAE Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, 6–10 February 1993 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993), paper 930870.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical experimental setup for exciplex fluorescence imaging of liquid mixing: L1, plano-convex lens, f L = 500 mm; L2, cylindrical lens, f L = 50 mm; L3, cylindrical lens, f L = 127.1 mm. The ST130 is the controller, and the PG200 is the pulser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence emission spectrum of exciplex (1-methylnaphthalene–TMPD*), 1-methylnaphthalene (N*), and TMPD (TMPD*) in the n-tetradecane solution are shown as solid curves. The fluorescence intensities correspond with a mixture of 97.5% cetane, 1.0% 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2.5% TMPD at 24 °C.13

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Falling cetane 2-mm drop after collision and penetration with a liquid pool. Mixing of the liquids occurs at the cetane–air interface and within the mixing zone between the liquid pool and the drop. White is the highest exciplex signal level. Black indicates no exciplex signal and no mixing. (b) Droplet mixing in a cetane pool near the surface. The interior of the droplet is not mixed, as indicated by the absence of the exciplex signal. A contact interface develops within the mixing zone. (c) Cetane jet mixing and penetration inside a cetane pool. Higher impact momentum induces more vigorous mixing between the liquids. (d) Exciplex fluorescence in the liquid pool some time after the mixing of a jet into the liquid pool. The air–cetane surface is distorted as a result of the impact. Also, vorticial mixing is observed at approximately 5 mm below the surface in the lower left-hand corner of the image. A diffusion layer is observed rolling up inside the vortex.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Exciplex fluorescence image of a jet just before impact with a liquid pool at t = 0 ms. (b) Exciplex image 100 ms after (a). The jet has impacted and penetrated the liquid pool. (c) Exciplex image 200 ms after (a). The diffusion layers have dissipated in the plane of the laser sheet.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Exciplex Pair Used for Experiments in Fig. 3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Exciplex Pair Used for Experiments in Fig. 4

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M + h ν A     M * ,
M *     M ,
M * + Q     M + Q ,
M *     M + h ν M ,
M * + G     E * .
E *     M * + G ,
E *     M + G ,
E * + Q     M + G + Q ,
E *     M + G + h ν E .

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