Abstract

Direct determination of the radiative forcing of trace gases will be made possible by use of the next generation of nadir-looking spaceborne instruments that provide measurements of atmospheric radiances in the infrared spectral range with improved spectral and spatial resolution. An inversion statistical method has thus been developed and applied to the direct determination of the radiative forcing of methane, based on such instruments as the Fourier-transform Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases launched onboard the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite in 1996 and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer planned for the European polar platform Meteorological Operational Satellite in 2000. The method is based on simple statistical laws that directly relate the measured radiances to the radiative forcing by use of an a priori selection of appropriate spectral intervals and global modeling of methane spatial variations. This procedure avoids the use of an indirect determination based on an inversion process that requires precise knowledge of the methane vertical profiles throughout the troposphere. The overall accuracy and precision of this new algorithm are studied, and interfering gases and instrumental characteristics are taken into account. It is shown that radiative forcing can be determined at high horizontal spatial resolution with a precision better than 7% in cloud-free conditions and with well-known surface properties.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Goïta, A. Royer, “Surface temperature and emissivity separability over land surface from combined TIR and SWIR AVHRR data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 718–733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,445–16,490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. M. L. Wigley, “Global-mean temperature and sea level consequences of greenhouse gas concentration stabilization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 45–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. P. Brasseur, G. Mégie, “The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1173–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative role of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Li, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVHRR data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 43, 67–85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H. H.

H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Earth Observing System,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Becker, F.

Z. L. Li, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVHRR data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 43, 67–85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

H. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Benner, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, G.

J. F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,445–16,490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, G. P.

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. P. Brasseur, G. Mégie, “The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1173–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briegleb, B. P.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative role of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cayla, F.

F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glavich, T. A.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–48 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goïta, K.

K. Goïta, A. Royer, “Surface temperature and emissivity separability over land surface from combined TIR and SWIR AVHRR data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 718–733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Granier, C.

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. P. Brasseur, G. Mégie, “The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1173–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

Hauglustaine, D. A.

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. P. Brasseur, G. Mégie, “The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1173–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, M.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. L.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Imasu, R.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Javelle, P.

F. Cayla, P. Javelle, “IASI instrument overview,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 271–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative role of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knuteson, R. O.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A.

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

Laporte, D. D.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. L.

Z. L. Li, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVHRR data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 43, 67–85 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mégie, G.

D. A. Hauglustaine, C. Granier, G. P. Brasseur, G. Mégie, “The importance of atmospheric chemistry in the calculation of radiative forcing on the climate system,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1173–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

H. H. Aumann, C. Miller, “Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Earth Observing System,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2583, 332–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moulinier, P.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. F.

J. F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,445–16,490 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishimomiya, S.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, E. R.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rindsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

H. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Royer, A.

K. Goïta, A. Royer, “Surface temperature and emissivity separability over land surface from combined TIR and SWIR AVHRR data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 718–733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruedy, R.

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

Sato, M.

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

Scott, N. A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, H.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishimomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, S.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sromovsky, L. A.

W. L. Smith, E. R. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “HIS-GOES: High resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rindsland, M. A. Smith, C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wahiche, C.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of TIROS-N series,” J. Climat. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, T. M. L.

T. M. L. Wigley, “Global-mean temperature and sea level consequences of greenhouse gas concentration stabilization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 45–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, H.

J. E. Hansen, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, H. Wilson, “How sensitive is the world’s climate?” Natl. Geogr. Res. Explor. 9, 142–158 (1993).

Woolf, H. M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral differential radiance as a function of wave number for both the IMG and the IASI spectral resolutions in the selected 2741–2743.4-cm-1 spectral range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Methane radiative forcing computed by a line-by-line radiative transfer model for summertime with the IMAGES model outputs. The largest values are observed above the warm surfaces and close to the methane sources.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Methane radiative forcing as a function of the differential radiance for the nadir-looking mode at 0.1-cm-1 spectral resolution for (a) the 1240.7–1241.3-cm-1 and (b) the 2741–2743.4-cm-1 intervals. The air-mass types are represented in various shades of a gray scale: black for polar, dark gray for mid-latitude, and lighter gray for tropical air masses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Methane radiative forcing as a function of the differential radiance for the nadir-looking mode at the IASI resolution (1 cm-1) for the 1240.7–1241.3-cm-1 spectral range. Interferences that are due to water vapor were included in the calculation with the TIGR database. The air-mass types are represented in various gray-scale shades as for Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Methane radiative forcing as a function of the differential radiance for the nadir-looking mode at the IASI resolution (1 cm-1) for the 1240.7–1241.3-cm-1 spectral range. Representative average value profiles were used for interferences that are due to water vapor. A linear fit has been adjusted on each type of air mass, and the corresponding h functions are provided.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected Narrow Spectral Intervals for the Main Isotope of Methane and Relative Contributions of Interfering Gases to Calculated Differential Radiance as a Function of Instrumental Resolution

Tables Icon

Table 2 Error Budget (rms) Calculated for Each Type of Air Mass (Polar, Midlatitude, Tropical, and Global) for Each Selected Spectral Intervala

Equations (6)

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Φ CH 4 = 2 π IR   spectrum L CH 4 σ ,   12   km - ε σ B T σ d σ cos θ d Ω ,
L Δ σ = Δ σ L σ ,   - ε σ B T σ d σ ,
Φ CH 4 = h L Δ σ ,
h = 5.92 x + 9.38 × 10 - 2 ,
h = 5.46 x 0.49 ,
ln B T s σ ν 4 = ln B T s σ ν 3 a + 3   ln σ ν 4 σ ν 3 b + h ˜ c k ˜ T s σ ν 3 - σ ν 4 c ,

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