Abstract

A combined optoelectronic and optomechanical packaging technique for the construction of snap-together free-space optical interconnect systems is described. The modules integrate relaying and routing functions by use of transparent optical molded plastic, which can achieve sufficient alignment precision that further adjustment is not required during system assembly. Methods to integrate the optoelectronic chips, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and receiver arrays with these plastic optical modules are described. Other chips can also be integrated to form optoelectronic multichip modules. These modules can also be designed to accommodate coupling to or from optical fiber arrays. A test-bed system to demonstrate the concept was assembled to a lower precision by use of conventional machining techniques.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (2)

1996 (6)

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Barak, E. Schenfeld, “Embedding classical communication topologies in scaleable OPAM architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 7, 979–992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

R. Iscoff, “Are MCMs the new packaging champ?” Semicond. Int. 15(13), 48–54 (1992).

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hamanaka, “Integration of free-space interconnects using Selfoc lenses: image transmission properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 1656–1662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

I. Shenker, “Playing with blocks can be a fine art at this theme park,” Smithsonian Mag. 19(6), 120–124 (1988).

1979 (1)

1970 (1)

Araki, S.

Ayliffe, M. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Barak, A.

A. Barak, E. Schenfeld, “Embedding classical communication topologies in scaleable OPAM architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 7, 979–992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. P.

Basavanhally, N. R.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beauchamp, C. P.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Brady, M. F.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, R. P.

G. R. Olbright, J. L. Jewell, R. P. Bryan, W. S. Fu, “Micro-optic and microelectronic integrated packaging of vertical cavity laser arrays,” in Processing and Packaging of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices, H. Temkin, ed., Proc. SPIE1851, 97–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chau, K. K.

S. Wakelin, K. K. Chau, M. Derstine, “Implementation of hybrid micro-optical beam combining unit, (MOBCU) with smart pixel transmitter array” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 252–254.

Churoux, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Collette, T.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
[CrossRef]

Craft, N. C.

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Derstine, M.

S. Wakelin, K. K. Chau, M. Derstine, “Implementation of hybrid micro-optical beam combining unit, (MOBCU) with smart pixel transmitter array” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 252–254.

Dickson, L. D.

Engstrand, J.-A.

M. E. Robertsson, P. Eriksen, B. Lindstrom, H.-C. Moll, J.-A. Engstrand, “Plastic optical connectors molded directly onto optical fibers and optical fiber ribbons,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Forty-Third Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 498–504.

Eriksen, P.

M. E. Robertsson, P. Eriksen, B. Lindstrom, H.-C. Moll, J.-A. Engstrand, “Plastic optical connectors molded directly onto optical fibers and optical fiber ribbons,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Forty-Third Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 498–504.

Fasanella, K.

K. Fasanella, T. J. Kim, D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Modular optomechanical design of free-space optical interconnect system for massively parallel processing,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 6–9.

Feldblum, A. Y.

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. S.

G. R. Olbright, J. L. Jewell, R. P. Bryan, W. S. Fu, “Micro-optic and microelectronic integrated packaging of vertical cavity laser arrays,” in Processing and Packaging of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices, H. Temkin, ed., Proc. SPIE1851, 97–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

D. J. Goodwill, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnect module extensible to 10,000 parallel channels for a smart-pixel optical backplane,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings: Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials Processing; Broadband Optical Networks—Enabling Technologies and Applications; Smart Pixels; Optical MEMs and their Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. vi + 78, 61–62.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’94 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994), pp. xii + 439, 246–255.

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka, “Integration of free-space interconnects using Selfoc lenses: image transmission properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 1656–1662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heiney, A. J.

A. J. Heiney, C. L. Jiang, W. H. Reysen, “Polymer molded lenses for optoelectronics,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Elecrtrical and Electroncis Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 170–175.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

Y. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnect module extensible to 10,000 parallel channels for a smart-pixel optical backplane,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings: Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials Processing; Broadband Optical Networks—Enabling Technologies and Applications; Smart Pixels; Optical MEMs and their Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. vi + 78, 61–62.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, W. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inada, K.

H. Yokosuka, Y. Tamaki, K. Inada, “A low loss multi fiber connector and its applications,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Fortieth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Vol. 1, pp. 865–868.
[CrossRef]

Iscoff, R.

R. Iscoff, “Are MCMs the new packaging champ?” Semicond. Int. 15(13), 48–54 (1992).

Iyer, R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaramillo, J. G.

Jayaraman, V.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. L.

G. R. Olbright, J. L. Jewell, R. P. Bryan, W. S. Fu, “Micro-optic and microelectronic integrated packaging of vertical cavity laser arrays,” in Processing and Packaging of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices, H. Temkin, ed., Proc. SPIE1851, 97–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C. L.

A. J. Heiney, C. L. Jiang, W. H. Reysen, “Polymer molded lenses for optoelectronics,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Elecrtrical and Electroncis Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 170–175.

Kabal, D.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Kajita, M.

Kasahara, K.

Kim, T. J.

K. Fasanella, T. J. Kim, D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Modular optomechanical design of free-space optical interconnect system for massively parallel processing,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 6–9.

Kubota, K.

Kurihara, K.

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindstrom, B.

M. E. Robertsson, P. Eriksen, B. Lindstrom, H.-C. Moll, J.-A. Engstrand, “Plastic optical connectors molded directly onto optical fibers and optical fiber ribbons,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Forty-Third Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 498–504.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Lytle, J. D.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mersereau, K. O.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moll, H.-C.

M. E. Robertsson, P. Eriksen, B. Lindstrom, H.-C. Moll, J.-A. Engstrand, “Plastic optical connectors molded directly onto optical fibers and optical fiber ribbons,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Forty-Third Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 498–504.

Mondry, M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fasanella, T. J. Kim, D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Modular optomechanical design of free-space optical interconnect system for massively parallel processing,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 6–9.

Nguyen, H. N.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright, J. L. Jewell, R. P. Bryan, W. S. Fu, “Micro-optic and microelectronic integrated packaging of vertical cavity laser arrays,” in Processing and Packaging of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices, H. Temkin, ed., Proc. SPIE1851, 97–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F. H.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. G.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Y. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, I.

Redmond, I. R.

I. R. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “Optoelectronic apparatus,” U.S. patent5,619, 359 (8April1997).

Reiley, D. J.

Reysen, W. H.

A. J. Heiney, C. L. Jiang, W. H. Reysen, “Polymer molded lenses for optoelectronics,” in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Elecrtrical and Electroncis Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 170–175.

Roberton, B.

F. A. P. Tooley, A. Z. Shang, B. Roberton, “Alignment tolerant smart pixels,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings: Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials Processing; Broadband Optical Networks—Enabling Technologies and Applications; Smart Pixels; Optical MEMs and their Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. vi + 78, 55–56.

Robertson, B.

Y. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. M.

Y. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, M. E.

M. E. Robertsson, P. Eriksen, B. Lindstrom, H.-C. Moll, J.-A. Engstrand, “Plastic optical connectors molded directly onto optical fibers and optical fiber ribbons,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Forty-Third Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 498–504.

Robinson, G. D.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, “Optical design of a free-space photonics switching system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4497–4504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schenfeld, E.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
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A. Barak, E. Schenfeld, “Embedding classical communication topologies in scaleable OPAM architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 7, 979–992 (1996).
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V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’94 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994), pp. xii + 439, 246–255.

I. R. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “Optoelectronic apparatus,” U.S. patent5,619, 359 (8April1997).

K. Fasanella, T. J. Kim, D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Modular optomechanical design of free-space optical interconnect system for massively parallel processing,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 6–9.

Shang, A. Z.

F. A. P. Tooley, A. Z. Shang, B. Roberton, “Alignment tolerant smart pixels,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings: Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials Processing; Broadband Optical Networks—Enabling Technologies and Applications; Smart Pixels; Optical MEMs and their Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. vi + 78, 55–56.

Sheer, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
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Shenker, I.

I. Shenker, “Playing with blocks can be a fine art at this theme park,” Smithsonian Mag. 19(6), 120–124 (1988).

Shevchuck, G. J.

G. J. Shevchuck, “Plastics: best supporting actors in fiber interconnection,” in Proceedings of LEOS’95: IEEE Lasers and Electro Optical Society Eighth Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 230–231.

Simmons, J.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering—The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 14, pp. 482–486.

Song, K.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E. M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, T.

Szmanski, T. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, Y.

H. Yokosuka, Y. Tamaki, K. Inada, “A low loss multi fiber connector and its applications,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Fortieth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Vol. 1, pp. 865–868.
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B. J.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. A.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, G. B.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical-cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, A. Z. Shang, B. Roberton, “Alignment tolerant smart pixels,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings: Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials Processing; Broadband Optical Networks—Enabling Technologies and Applications; Smart Pixels; Optical MEMs and their Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. vi + 78, 55–56.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, H. Venditti, T. H. Szmanski, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multi-stage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, A. Gottlieb, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1996), pp. 306–312.
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Wakelin, S.

S. Wakelin, K. K. Chau, M. Derstine, “Implementation of hybrid micro-optical beam combining unit, (MOBCU) with smart pixel transmitter array” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 252–254.

Walker, J. A.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, G. W.

Wong, Y. M.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yokosuka, H.

H. Yokosuka, Y. Tamaki, K. Inada, “A low loss multi fiber connector and its applications,” in IEEE Proceedings of the Fortieth Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Vol. 1, pp. 865–868.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B (1)

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packag. Manuf. Technol. B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. (1)

A. Barak, E. Schenfeld, “Embedding classical communication topologies in scaleable OPAM architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distribut. Syst. 7, 979–992 (1996).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of the integrated optical relay module: (a) A three-dimensional representation of the modified right angled prism, with inset microlens arrays and connectors. (b) A section through a pair of modules, with the plastic denoted by hatching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the beam and array combination and splitting options that might be implemented with the modules to construct an optical interconnect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gaussian beam relay for 125-μm-pitch microlenses with 2.017-mm focal length and n = 1.479 for the acrylic plastic. There is a microlens at each air–plastic interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometry for calculating optical path lengths for determining the optimal lens shape for the microlens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Integration of optoelectronic chips to the modules. (a) How a monolithic device array could be flip-chip bonded to metal circuitry on the plastic module. (b) How a hybrid optoelectronic and electronic chip could be assembled.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Basic principle of integration of optoelectronic chips and the plastic modules is shown. The optoelectronic chip is flip-chip bonded to circuitry formed on the module. Here the module has been enlarged to allow the integration of additional electronic chips in the form of a MCM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sectional through a separate optoelectronic packaging module. This module is essentially a chip carrier with integrated microlenses and optomechanical connectors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of how a linear fiber array could be integrated with the plastic modules: (a) assembly and (b) fiber connector. The alignment is achieved with V grooves while the connector is held tight in place by the clips.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Picture of an assembled cube with microlenses cemented to faces and connecting dowel pins in place.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spot diagram for a relay that was imaged onto a CCD camera. The spots at the edge of the array are dimmer because of incomplete microlenses. The pitch is 500 μm. The slight distortion is caused by the imaging lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Picture of the assembled test system. The VCSEL is to the left, and light is coupled out to the fiber array to the right.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Eye diagram for 1 Gbit/s. The eye opening is reduced by ringing on the rising edge caused by an impedance mismatch on the VCSEL chip.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Specifications of Modules for Acrylic Plastic (n = 1.487)

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Table 2 Summary of the Errors in the Manufacture of the Test System

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = 2 n + 1 f ,
OPL r = d 1 + z 2 + r 2 1 / 2 + n d 2 - z 2 + r 2 1 / 2 .
2 f + z 2 + r 2 1 / 2 + n 2 nf - z 2 + r 2 1 / 2 - 2 f 1 + n 2 - z n - 1 = 0 .
RSS = 2 N .

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