Abstract

A four-stage unidirectional ring free-space optical interconnect system was designed, analyzed, implemented, and characterized. The optical system was used within a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor–self-electro-optic-effect-device-based optical backplane demonstrator that was designed to fit into a standard VME chassis. This optical interconnect was a hybrid microlens–macrolens system, in which the microlens relays were arranged in a maximum lens-to-waist configuration to route the optical beams from the optical power supply to the transceiver arrays, while the macrolens optical relays were arranged in a telecentric configuration to route optical signal beams from stage to stage. The following aspects of the optical system design are discussed: the optical parameters for the hybrid optical system, the image mapping of the two-dimensional array of optical beams from stage to stage, the alignment tolerance of the hybrid relay system, and the power budget of the overall optical interconnect. The implementation of the optical system, including the characterization of optical components, subsystem prealignment, and final system assembly, is presented. The two-dimensional array of beams for the stage-to-stage interconnect was adjusted with a rotational error of <0.05° and a lateral offset error of <3.5 μm. The measured throughput is in good agreement with the lower-bound predictions obtained in the theoretical results, with an optical power throughput of -20.2 dB from the fiber input of the optical power supply to the modulator array and -25.5 dB from the fiber input to the detector plane.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Design and performance of a multiprocessor system employing board-to-board free-space optical interconnects: COSINE-1,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2334–2343 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. F. Sauter, “Gradient-index lens optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3446–3453 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, “Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system: COSINE-III,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1815–1822 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Sakano, K. Kimura, K. Noguchi, N. Naito, “256 × 256 turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch based on polarization control using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2581–2589 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Hegarty, “Optically lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372–1380 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Supmonchai, T. H. Szymanski, “High speed VLSI concentrators for terabit intelligent optical backplanes,” paper to be presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, Brugge, Belgium, 17–20 June 1998.
  13. T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  14. F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Tanaka, O. Kanzaki, “Focus of a diffracted Gaussian beam through a finite aperture lens: experimental and numerical investigations,” Appl. Opt. 26, 390–395 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.
  21. D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.
  23. R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of array of microlens relays: a case study,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 151–156 (1994).
  26. Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. A. Self, “Focusing of spherical Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 22, 658–661 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Belland, J. P. Crenn, “Changes in the characteristics of a Gaussian beam weakly diffracted by a circular aperture,” Appl. Opt. 21, 522–527 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Hamanaka, “Optical bus interconnection system using Selfoc lenses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1222–1224 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Sinclair Optics Inc., 6780 Palmyra Road, Fairport, New York 14450.
  32. H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. S. Liu, “Design, implementation, and characterization of free-space optical interconnects for optical backplanes,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1997), Chap. 3.
  34. A. R. Al-Rashed, B. E. A. Saleh, “Decentered Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6819–6825 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. L. Yip, P. C. Noutsios, L. Chen, “Improved propagation-mode near-field method for refractive-index profiling of optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2060–2068 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

1996 (8)

D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Hegarty, “Optically lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yip, P. C. Noutsios, L. Chen, “Improved propagation-mode near-field method for refractive-index profiling of optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2060–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Al-Rashed, A. R.

Araki, S.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Beauchamp, C. P.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of array of microlens relays: a case study,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 151–156 (1994).

Beckman, M. G.

Belland, P.

Boisset, G. C.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Brubaker, J. L.

Chen, L.

Cloonan, T. J.

Craft, N. C.

Crenn, J. P.

Crisci, R. J.

Feldblum, A. Y.

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, K.

Hegarty, J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Horan, P.

Hsiao, W.

Iyer, R.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Kabal, D.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Kajita, M.

Kamijoh, T.

H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanzaki, O.

Kasahara, K.

Kelly, B.

Kerbis, E.

Kim, N. H.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

Kim, N. K.

Kimura, K.

Kubota, K.

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, K.

Lacroix, F.

Lentine, A. L.

Leonberger, F. I.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, “Design, implementation, and characterization of free-space optical interconnects for optical backplanes,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1997), Chap. 3.

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

McCormick, F. B.

Merserau, K. O.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Naito, N.

Noguchi, K.

Noutsios, P. C.

Novotny, R. A.

Otazo, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

Pavlasek, D.

Plant, D. V.

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Prince, S. M.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of array of microlens relays: a case study,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 151–156 (1994).

Redmond, I.

Robertson, B.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, V. M.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

Robertson, W. M.

Robertson, W. W.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Rolson, D.

Rolston, D.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

Rolston, D. R.

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Sakano, T.

Saleh, B. E. A.

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Sauter, G. F.

Sawabe, T.

Schenfeld, E.

Self, S. A.

Shang, A. Z.

Shinozaki, K.

H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J.

Song, K.

Supmonchai, B.

B. Supmonchai, T. H. Szymanski, “High speed VLSI concentrators for terabit intelligent optical backplanes,” paper to be presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, Brugge, Belgium, 17–20 June 1998.

Suzaki, T.

Szymanski, T. H.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

B. Supmonchai, T. H. Szymanski, “High speed VLSI concentrators for terabit intelligent optical backplanes,” paper to be presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, Brugge, Belgium, 17–20 June 1998.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Hegarty, “Optically lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Tagizadeh, M. R.

Tanaka, K.

Thompson, D. A.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Hegarty, “Optically lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of array of microlens relays: a case study,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 151–156 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M. B.

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Walker, S. J.

Walker, S. L.

Wojcik, M. J.

Yip, G. L.

Appl. Opt. (22)

P. Belland, J. P. Crenn, “Changes in the characteristics of a Gaussian beam weakly diffracted by a circular aperture,” Appl. Opt. 21, 522–527 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Self, “Focusing of spherical Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 22, 658–661 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, O. Kanzaki, “Focus of a diffracted Gaussian beam through a finite aperture lens: experimental and numerical investigations,” Appl. Opt. 26, 390–395 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Design and performance of a multiprocessor system employing board-to-board free-space optical interconnects: COSINE-1,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2334–2343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface-emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Sauter, “Gradient-index lens optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3446–3453 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, “Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system: COSINE-III,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1815–1822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sakano, K. Kimura, K. Noguchi, N. Naito, “256 × 256 turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch based on polarization control using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2581–2589 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Al-Rashed, B. E. A. Saleh, “Decentered Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6819–6825 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rolson, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Hegarty, “Optically lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yip, P. C. Noutsios, L. Chen, “Improved propagation-mode near-field method for refractive-index profiling of optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2060–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-effet-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A (1)

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of array of microlens relays: a case study,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 151–156 (1994).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Sasaki, K. Shinozaki, T. Kamijoh, “Reduced alignment accuracy requirement using focused Gaussian beams for free-space optical interconnection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1550–1560 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Merserau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnects for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. Supmonchai, T. H. Szymanski, “High speed VLSI concentrators for terabit intelligent optical backplanes,” paper to be presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, Brugge, Belgium, 17–20 June 1998.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing and Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, D. Rolston, V. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the International Conference on Optical Computing, 22–25 August 1994, Edinburgh, UK.

D. Kabal, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, M. B. Venditti, “Packaging of two-dimensional smart pixel arrays,” presented at the IEEE/Leos 1996 Summer Topical Meeting on Advanced Applications of Lasers in Materials and Processing, 5–9 August 1996, Keystone, Col.

Y. S. Liu, “Design, implementation, and characterization of free-space optical interconnects for optical backplanes,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1997), Chap. 3.

Sinclair Optics Inc., 6780 Palmyra Road, Fairport, New York 14450.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical backplane system in a 6U VME chassis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the unfolded overall optical system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frame grab of the spot array at the PAP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stage-to-stage optical relay system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PMMA. (b) MA. The pixelated mirrors and the microlenses used in the hybrid optical interconnect are shown in the boxed areas.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the microlens relay.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the CMOS–SEED chips on the DB’s in the unidirectional ring.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Clipping effects for the symmetry of the alignment tolerance. To maintain the symmetric distribution of the alignment tolerance, it was necessary to pull the PAP away from the microlens on the PMMA, and the separation between the microlenses was increased.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Setup used for measuring the relative focal length of a macrolens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Setup for the PMMA-to-MA alignment.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fringe pattern providing information on the alignment of the MA to the PMMA, where (a) asymmetric fringes show the θ and z misalignments, (b) one-sided fringes show the lateral misalignment, and (c) minimum fringes indicate the optimal alignment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical beams from stage i on the microlenses of MA i .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optical beams from stage i and stage i+1 incident on the microlenses at MA i+1: (a) Optical beams from PAP i incident on MA i+1. (b) Optical beams from both PAP i and PAP i+1 incident on MA i+1.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Spot arrays at the modulator plane of stage3: (a) Spot array. (b) Spot array with illumination light. The background shows the multiple images of the PMMA imaged by the MA.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Optical spots from stage i to stage i+1, where the bright spots are the focused signal beams and the background is the multiple images of PMMA i+1 imaged by MA i+1. (a) Only spots from stage i were relayed to the receiver plane of stage i+1. (b) Optical beams from both stage i and stage i+1 were incident on the receiver plane of stage i+1.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Alignment Tolerances of Stage-to-Stage Optical Interconnects

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Power Budget for Stage-to-Stage Interconnect

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical Power Throughput for Stage-to-Stage Interconnects

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

3 ω 0 d ,
3 ω L a .
ω L = ω 0 1 + z z r 2 1 / 2 ,
δ 2 = 1 + f / z r δ 0 .
ω 0 eff = ω 0 1 - exp - k 2 cos k 2 z z r ,
δ f f = f 1 - f 2 f 1 = 1 - s 2 s 1 .
Uniformity = 1 - P max - P min P max + P min ,

Metrics