Abstract

All-optical switches find applications in ultrahigh-speed network–user interfaces and in specialized high-speed processors, such as data regenerators and encryptors and microwave signal generators. We describe a semiconductor optical-amplifier-based single-arm interferometric switch called the ultrafast nonlinear interferometer. We discuss how the gain and the refractive-index nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers have an impact on the all-optical switch design, and we review experimental results obtained with the ultrafast nonlinear interferometer.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).
  2. K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.
  3. N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “40-Gbit/s cascadable all-optical logic with an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1466–1468 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1440–1441 (1991).
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  7. T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, “All-optical time division multiplexing using four-wave-mixing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1697–1698 (1994).
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  9. N. J. Doran, D. Wood, “Nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 13, 56–58 (1988).
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  10. P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, “Ultrafast all-optical logic operations in a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer with two control beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 220–222 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “All-optical bit pattern generation and matching,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1214–1215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Wiesenfeld, “Gain dynamics and associated nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. 7, 179–222 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Osinski, J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—an overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9–29 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Shirasaki, H. A. Haus, D. L. Wong, “Nonlinear fiber interferometer and logic gate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper THO1.
  25. M. J. LaGasse, D. Liu-Wong, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, “Ultrafast switching with a single-fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 14, 311–313 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, “SLALOM: semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2099–2112 (1993).
  30. I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 30, 339–341 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, “40 Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695–1697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Z. Vardeny, J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. L. Hall, J. P. Donnelly, S. H. Groves, C. I. Fennelly, R. J. Bailey, A. Napoleone, “40-Gbit/s all-optical circulating shift register with an inverter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1479–1481 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (7)

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, “40 Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695–1697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “40-Gbit/s cascadable all-optical logic with an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1466–1468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “All-optical bit pattern generation and matching,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1214–1215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wiesenfeld, “Gain dynamics and associated nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. 7, 179–222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (9)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 30, 339–341 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, “All-optical time division multiplexing using four-wave-mixing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1697–1698 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, “SLALOM: semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2099–2112 (1993).

1992 (1)

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, “Ultrafast all-optical logic operations in a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer with two control beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 220–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1440–1441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Osinski, J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—an overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Z. Vardeny, J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adams, L. E.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

Anderson, K. K.

K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1440–1441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. J.

Barry, R. A.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Boncek, R. K.

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bondurant, R. S.

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buus, J.

M. Osinski, J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—an overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

Chang, T. G.

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, S. L.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. A. O.

R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

Donnelly, J. P.

Doran, N. J.

Doussiere, P.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eiselt, M.

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, “SLALOM: semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2099–2112 (1993).

Fennelly, C. I.

Finn, S. G.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, D. Liu-Wong, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, “Ultrafast switching with a single-fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 14, 311–313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glesk, I.

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 30, 339–341 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gois, M.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, L.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Groves, S. H.

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, J. P. Donnelly, S. H. Groves, C. I. Fennelly, R. J. Bailey, A. Napoleone, “40-Gbit/s all-optical circulating shift register with an inverter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1479–1481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, “40 Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695–1697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “40-Gbit/s cascadable all-optical logic with an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1466–1468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “All-optical bit pattern generation and matching,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1214–1215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Haus, H. A.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, D. Liu-Wong, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, “Ultrafast switching with a single-fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 14, 311–313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirasaki, H. A. Haus, D. L. Wong, “Nonlinear fiber interferometer and logic gate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper THO1.

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hultgren, C. T.

C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

Joergensen, C.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamatani, O.

S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, “All-optical time division multiplexing using four-wave-mixing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1697–1698 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K. I.

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, “All-optical time division multiplexing using four-wave-mixing,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1697–1698 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kintzer, E. S.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

Kitoh, T.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

LaGasse, M. J.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, D. Liu-Wong, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, “Ultrafast switching with a single-fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 14, 311–313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lattes, A.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liu-Wong, D.

Livas, J. C.

K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lucek, J. K.

R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

R. J. Manning, D. A. O. Davies, D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, “Enhanced recovery rates in semiconductor laser amplifiers using optical pumping,” Electron. Lett. 30, 787–788 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Mikkelsen, B.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. W.

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moores, J. D.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Mori, K.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morton, P. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Napoleone, A.

Nishi, S.

K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, M.

M. Osinski, J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—an overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. S.

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, “40 Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695–1697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “40-Gbit/s cascadable all-optical logic with an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1466–1468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Pieper, W.

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, “SLALOM: semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2099–2112 (1993).

Pommerau, F.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, R. K. Boncek, “Demonstration of ultrafast, all-optical, low control energy, single wavelength, polarization independent, cascadable, and integratable switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 605–607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 30, 339–341 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, “40 Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695–1697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “40-Gbit/s cascadable all-optical logic with an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1466–1468 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “All-optical bit pattern generation and matching,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1214–1215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

Raybon, G.

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Rauschenbach, K. L. Hall, J. C. Livas, G. Raybon, “All-optical pulse width and wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1130–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

M. Shirasaki, H. A. Haus, D. L. Wong, “Nonlinear fiber interferometer and logic gate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper THO1.

Simpson, J. R.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. P.

I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 30, 339–341 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, S. Nishi, M. Saruwatari, “Error-free demultiplexing of 160 Gbit/s pulse signal using optical loop mirror including semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1501–1502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, G. Raybon, “Picosecond-accuracy all-optical bit phase sensing using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 935–937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, S. R. Chinn, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, R. S. Bondurant, J. W. Miller, “100 GHz soliton pulse train generation using soliton compression of two phase side bands from a single DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1194–1196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave-mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1959–1960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, “100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1152–1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanbun-Ek, T.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

Z. Vardeny, J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, M. Asobe, T. Ohara, “Error free all-optical demultiplexing using a chalcogenide glass fibre based nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1601–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, T. Kitoh, “100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror with gating-width control,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1870–1871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vaa, M.

S. L. Danielson, C. Joergensen, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, L. Goldstein, M. Gois, “Bit error rate assessment of a 40 Gb/s all-optical polarization independent wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1688–1690 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z.

Z. Vardeny, J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. A.

K. K. Anderson, M. J. LaGasse, C. A. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1834–1846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, “SLALOM: semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2099–2112 (1993).

Wecht, K. W.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, P. A. Morton, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, K. W. Wecht, “64 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 644–646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

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M. Shirasaki, H. A. Haus, D. L. Wong, “Nonlinear fiber interferometer and logic gate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper THO1.

Wong, W. S.

R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

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Int. J. High Speed Electron. (1)

J. M. Wiesenfeld, “Gain dynamics and associated nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. 7, 179–222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, “All-optical network consortium-ultrafast TDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 999–1013 (1996).

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Other (2)

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, N. S. Patel, J. D. Moores, “100 Gbit/s optical network technology,” in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. Nuss, J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 31–36.

M. Shirasaki, H. A. Haus, D. L. Wong, “Nonlinear fiber interferometer and logic gate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper THO1.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

40-Gbit/s and gate simulations for unbalanced and balanced switches. Signal and control are both 40-Gbit/s pseudorandom bit streams generated with 12.5-ps pulses. The unbalanced output corresponds to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer output, while the balanced output corresponds to the single-arm interferometer output. Note the contrast between the distorted unbalanced output stream and the uniform balanced output stream.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of a SAI: PSD’s, polarization-sensitive delays; NLM, nonlinear medium. A filter is required at the output of the device for extinguishing the control stream.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

40-Gbit/s and gate simulation of the balanced device with gain modulation. Signal and control are both 40-Gbit/s pseudorandom bit streams generated with 12.5-ps pulses. Output is the balanced output stream of the simulated and gate. Note that the gain nonlinearity imparts a pattern-dependent amplitude modulation on the output stream.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the UNI: PSD’s, polarization-sensitive delays; NLM, nonlinear medium. Note the absence of a filter at the output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Implementation of the UNI. The output PSI is used to interfere the orthogonal signal-pulse components. The 12° angle polish is required for preventing backreflection of the control stream into the output port.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for demultiplexing with the UNI: ML-ECL’s, mode-locked external-cavity lasers; PRBS, pseudorandom bit stream; EDFA’s, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The electro-optic modulator is a commercially available, differentially driven lithium niobate modulator. The UNI is biased off and configured as an and gate. The output of the UNI is detected with a 45-GHz 3-dB-bandwidth photodiode and displayed on a 50-GHz 3-dB-bandwidth digital sampling oscilloscope.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Oscilloscope trace of 40-Gbit/s demultiplexing. The 40-Gbit/s data and the 10-Gbit/s clock streams enter the signal and the control ports of the UNI, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER measurements for demultiplexing operation: (a) Copropagating control-pulse geometry. (b) Counterpropagating control-pulse geometry. The baseline measurements are obtained from the 10-Gbit/s data stream before being passively multiplexed to 20 and 40 Gbits/s. The power penalty for demultiplexing a 10-Gbit/s stream from a 40-Gbit/s stream is approximately 3 dB in both device geometries.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup for CSR experiment: S, signal port; O, output port; C, control port; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Analog oscilloscope trace of CSR output.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental setup for 40-Gbit/s and and invert operations (notation is the same as that of Fig. 6). The output of the UNI is detected in a 45-GHz-bandwidth photodiode and displayed on a 50-GHz-bandwidth digital sampling oscilloscope.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Oscilloscope traces of 40-Gbit/s and and invert operations. The clock stream CLK and the data stream A enter the signal and the control ports of the UNI, respectively. In the case of the and operation, the UNI is biased off. In the case of invert, the UNI is biased on.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Oscilloscope traces of the 10-Gbit/s invert operation. The clock stream and the data stream enter the signal and the control ports of the UNI, respectively. In the case of the and operation, the UNI is biased off. In the case of invert, the UNI is biased on. The good extinction ratio of the inverted stream suggests that transient interferometer bias offset caused by ultrafast gain nonlinearities is not a serious problem.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

BER measurement for 10-Gbit/s demultiplexing. Approximately a 3-dB power penalty is incurred for the invert operation, corroborating the assertion that the degree of differential gain modulation between orthogonal signal pulse components is small.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Implementation of or and nor gates based on the UNI. The 12° angle polish is required for preventing backreflection of the control stream into the output port.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Oscilloscope traces of or and nor operations. The A and the B streams are coupled into the control port of the UNI while a clock stream enters the signal port. Note the relative uniformity of the output-pulse amplitudes.

Equations (6)

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I out I in = 1 4 1 + g 2 + 2 g   cos Δ ϕ ,
h t = i   a i exp - t / τ i .
I out t = 1 4 1 + g 2 t + 2 g t cos π + Δ ϕ t ,
g t = h g I c t = -   I c τ h g t - τ d τ ,
Δ ϕ t = h ϕ I c t = -   I c τ h ϕ t - τ d τ ,
I out t = I s t g t g t - T / 2 × cos 2 π + Δ ϕ t - Δ ϕ t - T / 2 2 + 1 4   I s t g t - g t - T / 2 2 ,

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