Abstract

Free-space optical interconnects have been identified as a potentially important technology for future massively parallel-computing systems. The development of optoelectronic smart pixels based on InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators and detectors flip-chip solder-bump bonded onto complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits and the design and construction of an experimental processor in which the devices are linked by free-space optical interconnects are described. For demonstrating the capabilities of the technology, a parallel data-sorting system has been identified as an effective demonstrator. By use of Batcher’s bitonic sorting algorithm and exploitation of a perfect-shuffle optical interconnection, the system has the potential to perform a full sort on 1024, 16-bit words in less than 16 μs. We describe the design, testing, and characterization of the smart-pixel devices and free-space optical components. InGaAs–CMOS smart-pixel, chip-to-chip communication has been demonstrated at 50 Mbits/s. It is shown that the initial system specifications can be met by the component technologies.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (5)

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel. Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signalling,” IEEE Micro 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, “Optimization and tolerance analysis of QCSE modulators and detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1094–1103 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, A. J. Waddie, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Performance analysis of self-electro-optic-effect-device-based (seed-based) smart-pixel arrays used in data sorting,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6397–6416 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Barret, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. B. Dines, “Smart pixel opto-electronic receiver based on a charge sensitive amplifier design,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, S.

Bacon, D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D.

Baillie, D. A.

Barret, C. P.

Barrett, C. P.

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Black, P.

Blair, P.

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

Caswell, L. T. D.

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. Lamarch, M. M. Downs, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Craft, N. C.

Cunningham, J. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dally, W. J.

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signalling,” IEEE Micro 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dasaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. Lamarch, M. M. Downs, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

Dines, J. A. B.

Downs, M. M.

Foulk, P. W.

Goodwill, D. J.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodwin, M. J.

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grant, N. L.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lamarch, R. E.

Leibenguth, R. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McElhinney, M.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel. Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, “Optimization and tolerance analysis of QCSE modulators and detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1094–1103 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barret, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozaktas, H. M.

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel. Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, A. D.

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, F.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, J.

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signalling,” IEEE Micro 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

Prise, M. E.

Robertson, B.

Ross, N.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B.

B. Smith, “Interconnection networks for shared memory parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 255–256.
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. C.

Snowdon, J. F.

Stanley, C. R.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tooley, F. A. P.

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turnunen, J.

Vogele, B.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A. J.

Walker, A. C.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barret, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Wilkinson, L. C.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. Lamarch, M. M. Downs, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turnunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, A. J. Waddie, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Performance analysis of self-electro-optic-effect-device-based (seed-based) smart-pixel arrays used in data sorting,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6397–6416 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Barret, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vogele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. J. Goodwin, L. T. D. Caswell, A. D. Parsons, I. Bennion, W. J. Stewart, “8 × 8 element hybridized PLZT silicon spatial light-modulator array,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1260–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. T. Neilson, “Optimization and tolerance analysis of QCSE modulators and detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1094–1103 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. Dasaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater-than-4000 optical i/o based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. B. Dines, “Smart pixel opto-electronic receiver based on a charge sensitive amplifier design,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro (1)

W. J. Dally, J. Poulton, “Transmitter equalization for 4-Gbps signalling,” IEEE Micro 17, 48–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. Dasaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-GB/s 2-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Parallel. Distrib. Comput. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel. Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors—Technology Needs (Semiconductor Industry Association, San Jose, Calif., 1997).

B. Smith, “Interconnection networks for shared memory parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 255–256.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General scheme of the sorter system. The shift register is a smart-pixel device comprising a 32 × 32 array of shift registers, each with optical input and output. The bypass–exchange is the second smart-pixel device, which is configured as a 32 × 16 array, each element handling a pair of optical signals. The perfect-shuffle interconnect is implemented by use of lenses and diffractive optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Differential InGaAs modulators corresponding to pairs of diodes, reversed biased in series, and switched by control of the center-node voltage. (b) The receivers based on TIA’s sense the voltage at the center node of the reverse-biased pair of differential detector diodes. (c) The receivers based on charge-sense amplifiers take current directly from each reverse-biased pair of diodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the flip-chip solder-bump bonded InGaAs–CMOS smart-pixel device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye diagrams obtained by the monitoring of one output of a representative differential InGaAs modulator pair within a 32 × 32 array (2048 diodes): (a) 200 Mbits/s. (b) 300 Mbits/s. (c) 400 Mbits/s. (d) 500 Mbits/s. Closure is between 400 and 500 Mbits/s. The high-frequency response is limited mainly by the test equipment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results obtained from the test CMOS–InGaAs smart-pixel arrays: (a) Variation with the wavelength of contrast (high–low output ratio) for an InGaAs modulator driven by 5-V signals from the CMOS and with a 5-V bias (temperature 30 °C). (b) Optical output from an InGaAs modulator in the form of 100-Mbit/s data. (c) Data clocked electrically from a smart-pixel array after the corresponding bit pattern had been input (electrically) to a second identical device and transferred across optically, i.e., modulator to detector, at 50 Mbits/s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the optical system that shows the two sets of beam paths between the two smart pixels [(a) and (b)]. The system includes a polarizing beam splitter (PBS), a quarter-wave plate (QWP), the 64 × 32, 128 × 16, and 2 × 1 fan-out DOE’s, and patterned mirrors (PM1, PM2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic showing the implementation of the 2-D perfect shuffle in two 1-D stages. The outputs from the exchange–bypass smart-pixel array (labeled a–p) are split and interlaced by a DOE and associated lenses and imaged with a 2× magnification onto the shift-register smart-pixel array. Its output passes through a second DOE, which completes the 2-D shuffle (i.e., along the other direction) before the signals are imaged back to the exchange–bypass array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of the assembled sorter system. The distance between the two PCB’s is 26 cm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optomechanical layout of the top plate of the sorter system. The diagram shows the lenses (f = 30 mm, f = 15 mm), the beam ports to and from the bottom baseplate (P1, P2, P3, P4), the diffractive fan-out elements (DOE1, DOE2, DOE3, DOE4), QWP’s, half-wave plates (HWP’s), PBS’s, Risley prisms (RP1, RP2, RP3, RP4), PM1, PM2, and the positions of the two smart-pixel arrays.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Close-up of a portion of the 128 × 16 array of beams focused onto the exchange–bypass chip after traversing the optical system from the shift-register chip, following the path shown in Fig. 6(a). The horizontal spacing between the spots is 45 μm.

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