Abstract

Modulation frequency multiplexing provides a straightforward method, analogous to television or radio broadcasting, for performing simultaneous detection of multiple gases by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers. When fiber-optic coupled lasers are used, our approach guarantees that all beams transit the same optical path and impinge on the same detector. Each laser is modulated at a different frequency and the detector output is processed by a set of lock-in amplifiers, one for each laser, to measure the absorbance encountered by each laser.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Measurements in the HCl 3 ← 0 band using a near-IR InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 5009–5015 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Silver, D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, “Diode laser measurements of trace concentrations of ammonia in an entrained-flow coal reactor,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1505–1511 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. S. Bomse, “Dual-modulation laser line-locking scheme,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2922–2924 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, “High-sensitivity laser wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 1, 115–117 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer with application to the detection of NO2 at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1186–1190 (1982).
  12. M. P. Arroyo, T. P. Birbeck, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Dual diode-laser fiber-optic diagnostic for water-vapor measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1091–1093 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, “Multiplexed diode-laser sensor system for simultaneous H2O, O2, and temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1900–1903 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Herriott, H. Kogelnik, R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1992 (3)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1988 (1)

A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Measurements in the HCl 3 ← 0 band using a near-IR InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 5009–5015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1186–1190 (1982).

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

1964 (1)

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

Ballik, E. A.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Birbeck, T. P.

Bomse, D. S.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1186–1190 (1982).

El-Sherbiny, M.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gopaul, N. K. J. M.

Hanson, R. K.

Herriott, D. R.

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matt, D. R.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, T. P.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

Newfield, M. E.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1186–1190 (1982).

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer with application to the detection of NO2 at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Silver, D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, “Diode laser measurements of trace concentrations of ammonia in an entrained-flow coal reactor,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1505–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Measurements in the HCl 3 ← 0 band using a near-IR InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 5009–5015 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to demonstrate modulation frequency multiplexing for simultaneous detection of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation frequency multiplexing detection of CO in a 50:50 mixture of CO and CO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation frequency multiplexing detection of CO2 in a 50:50 mixture of CO and CO2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CO and CO2 spectra acquired with modulation frequency multiplexing.

Metrics