Abstract

Brightness temperatures over sea ice and water surfaces derived from vertically polarized microwave signals are normally higher than the values resulting from horizontally polarized signals. But, according to simple model considerations, this normal relationship can be reversed for three adjacent layers (atmosphere, ice, and water) with different dielectric properties. The validity of this concept is confirmed by measurements near the ice surface. It is found that the polarization anomaly results from the interference of the polarized microwaves from different interfaces.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. W. Petty, “Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 79–99 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Liu, C. Simmer, “Polarization and intensity in microwave radiative transfer,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 535–545 (1996).
  3. F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive, Volume II: Surface Scattering and Emission Theory (Addison-Wesley, London, 1982).
  4. L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, Toronto, 1985).

1996 (1)

Q. Liu, C. Simmer, “Polarization and intensity in microwave radiative transfer,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 535–545 (1996).

1994 (1)

G. W. Petty, “Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 79–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fung, A.

F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive, Volume II: Surface Scattering and Emission Theory (Addison-Wesley, London, 1982).

Kong, J. A.

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, Toronto, 1985).

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, C. Simmer, “Polarization and intensity in microwave radiative transfer,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 535–545 (1996).

Moore, R.

F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive, Volume II: Surface Scattering and Emission Theory (Addison-Wesley, London, 1982).

Petty, G. W.

G. W. Petty, “Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 79–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, R. T.

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, Toronto, 1985).

Simmer, C.

Q. Liu, C. Simmer, “Polarization and intensity in microwave radiative transfer,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 535–545 (1996).

Tsang, L.

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, Toronto, 1985).

Ulaby, F.

F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive, Volume II: Surface Scattering and Emission Theory (Addison-Wesley, London, 1982).

Contrib. Atmos. Phys. (1)

Q. Liu, C. Simmer, “Polarization and intensity in microwave radiative transfer,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 535–545 (1996).

Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (1)

G. W. Petty, “Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 79–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive, Volume II: Surface Scattering and Emission Theory (Addison-Wesley, London, 1982).

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, Toronto, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fresnel reflectivity at 37 GHz, assuming a water temperature of -1 °C and an ice temperature of -6 °C. V and H represent the vertically and the horizontally polarized components, respectively. Fresnel reflectivity is indicated at the air–ice and ice–water interfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled reflectivity at 37 GHz for the three-layer model (air–ice–water) by Eq. (1), assuming a water temperature of -1 °C, an ice temperature of -6 °C, and ice thickness of 11 mm. V and H represent the vertically and the horizontally polarized components, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ground-based measurements of the microwave brightness temperature at 37 GHz over ice of 10–15-mm thickness. The ice temperature was -6 °C and the water temperature was -1 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of the modeled reflectivity with ice thickness for 37 GHz and a constant incident angle of 50 deg.

Equations (1)

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R α = R α 0 + R α 1 exp 2 jk z d 1 + R α 0 R α 1 exp 2 jk z d ,

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