Abstract

We demonstrate that solarization occurs in glass substrates during thin-film deposition and that it induces high absorption near the surface of the substrate. Solarization has been observed especially in ion-plating deposition. We show that the solarization of the substrate is caused by electromagnetic radiation emitted from the material to be evaporated. The radiation is due to the energy losses of the heating beam of electrons (bremsstrahlung radiation). Multicomponent glasses such as BK7 are much more sensitive to solarization than fused-silica substrates. The photoinduced high absorption can be partially reversed by thermal annealing.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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1996 (3)

1995 (4)

1994 (1)

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced UV spectral changes in optical fiber preform cores: support for a color center model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Speit, E. Rädlein, G. H. Frischat, A. J. Marker, J. S. Hayden, “Radiation resistant optical glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 65, 384–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylor, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excimer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.06 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

1981 (1)

S. Gebala, I. Wilk, “A contribution to the study of radiation-induced changes in some sort of glass,” Opt. Appl. 11, 321–326 (1981).

1980 (1)

1962 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

P. Roche, M. Commandré, L. Escoubas, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, B. Lazaridés, “Substrate effects on absorption of coated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5059–5066 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amer, N. M.

Andrews, M.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced UV spectral changes in optical fiber preform cores: support for a color center model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Borgogno, J. P.

Brimacombe, R. K.

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylor, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excimer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chisham, J.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cochet, F.

Commandré, M.

P. Roche, M. Commandré, L. Escoubas, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, B. Lazaridés, “Substrate effects on absorption of coated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5059–5066 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed., Vol. 49 of Optical Engineering Series (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 329–365.

L. Escoubas, P. Roche, M. Commandré, “Near-surface and interface absorption in coated substrates,” in Specification, Production, and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, A. E. Gee, J.-F. Houee, eds., Proc. SPIE2775, 380–391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dang, X. C.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.06 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Desrumeaux, C.

J. Dijon, T. Pioroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder Colo., 1996).

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, T. Pioroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder Colo., 1996).

Dressel, M.

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.06 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Eder, D. C.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced UV spectral changes in optical fiber preform cores: support for a color center model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

P. Roche, M. Commandré, L. Escoubas, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, B. Lazaridés, “Substrate effects on absorption of coated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5059–5066 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Escoubas, P. Roche, M. Commandré, “Near-surface and interface absorption in coated substrates,” in Specification, Production, and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, A. E. Gee, J.-F. Houee, eds., Proc. SPIE2775, 380–391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faux, D. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Fournier, D.

Frischat, G. H.

B. Speit, E. Rädlein, G. H. Frischat, A. J. Marker, J. S. Hayden, “Radiation resistant optical glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 65, 384–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gebala, S.

S. Gebala, I. Wilk, “A contribution to the study of radiation-induced changes in some sort of glass,” Opt. Appl. 11, 321–326 (1981).

Genin, F. Y.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, “Defect structure of glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 51–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hack, H.

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

B. Speit, E. Rädlein, G. H. Frischat, A. J. Marker, J. S. Hayden, “Radiation resistant optical glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 65, 384–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henessian, M. A.

Hillrichs, G.

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Karlitschek, K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, “Suppression of solarization effects in optical fibers for 266 nm laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Jackson, W. B.

Karlitschek, P.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

P. Karlitschek, K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, “Suppression of solarization effects in optical fibers for 266 nm laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Klein, K.-F.

P. Karlitschek, K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, “Suppression of solarization effects in optical fibers for 266 nm laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Kunstmann, R.

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lazaridés, B.

Leopold, K. E.

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylor, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excimer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Li, C. Y.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Mackenzie, J. D.

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malek-Tabrizi, A.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, P. Karlitschek, K. Mann, “Possibilities and limits of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Marker, A. J.

B. Speit, E. Rädlein, G. H. Frischat, A. J. Marker, J. S. Hayden, “Radiation resistant optical glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 65, 384–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced UV spectral changes in optical fiber preform cores: support for a color center model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

G. Hillrichs, M. Dressel, H. Hack, R. Kunstmann, W. Neu, “Transmission of XeCl excimer laser pulses through optical fibers: dependence on fiber and laser parameters,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 208–215 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultra violet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by UV-light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pioroux, T.

J. Dijon, T. Pioroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder Colo., 1996).

Rädlein, E.

B. Speit, E. Rädlein, G. H. Frischat, A. J. Marker, J. S. Hayden, “Radiation resistant optical glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 65, 384–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R. A.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Ristau, D.

E. Welsch, D. Ristau, “Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7239–7253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.06 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Roche, P.

P. Roche, M. Commandré, L. Escoubas, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, B. Lazaridés, “Substrate effects on absorption of coated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5059–5066 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed., Vol. 49 of Optical Engineering Series (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 329–365.

H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass, Schott Series on Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

L. Escoubas, P. Roche, M. Commandré, “Near-surface and interface absorption in coated substrates,” in Specification, Production, and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, A. E. Gee, J.-F. Houee, eds., Proc. SPIE2775, 380–391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Karlitschek, K.-F. Klein, G. Hillrichs, “Suppression of solarization effects in optical fibers for 266 nm laser radiation,” in Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photothermal deflection experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BK7 substrate protected by a silica substrate in the coating plant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First experiment: position of substrates in the evaporation chamber and measured absorptances of substrates, a, before evaporation and, b, of samples after evaporation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Second experiment: position of substrates in the evaporation chamber and measured absorptances of substrates, a, before evaporation and, b, of samples after evaporation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Effects of Thermal Annealing on Mean Absorptance (Annealing Conditions: 4 h at 250 °C)

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