Abstract

The optical properties of copper Cu–Ni compound metal island (CMI) films composed of nanoclusters of an alloy of Cu and Ni have been experimentally investigated. The spectral characteristics of the Cu–Ni CMI films are intermediate between those of conventional Cu and Ni island films in visible and near-IR regions. In addition, the magneto-optic effect has been observed in the Cu–Ni CMI films. It is also shown that the Faraday rotation in the Cu–Ni CMI films can easily be controlled by selection of the mixture ratio of Cu and Ni.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Leitner, “Second-harmonic generation in metal island films consisting of oriented silver particles of low symmetry,” Mol. Phys. 70, 197–207 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. F. Haglund, L. Yang, R. H. Magruder, J. E. Wittig, K. Becker, R. A. Zuhr, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Opt. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. D. Stookey, R. J. Araujio, “Selective polarization of light due to absorption by small elongated silver particles in glass,” Appl. Opt. 7, 777–779 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Versatile waveguide polarizer incorporating an ultrathin silver film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1619–1621 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.
  10. G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Maxwell–Garnett, “Colors in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. 203, 385–420 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  16. For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Anno, T. Yamaguchi, “Optical absorption of Ni and Pd particles: enhanced correlation interaction between conduction electrons,” Surf. Sci. 286, 168–175 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. F. Haglund, L. Yang, R. H. Magruder, J. E. Wittig, K. Becker, R. A. Zuhr, “Picosecond nonlinear optical response of a Cu:silica nanocluster composite,” Opt. Lett. 18, 373–375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Anno, T. Yamaguchi, “Optical absorption of Ni and Pd particles: enhanced correlation interaction between conduction electrons,” Surf. Sci. 286, 168–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Versatile waveguide polarizer incorporating an ultrathin silver film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1619–1621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

1990 (1)

A. Leitner, “Second-harmonic generation in metal island films consisting of oriented silver particles of low symmetry,” Mol. Phys. 70, 197–207 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell–Garnett, “Colors in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, T.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anno, E.

E. Anno, T. Yamaguchi, “Optical absorption of Ni and Pd particles: enhanced correlation interaction between conduction electrons,” Surf. Sci. 286, 168–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Araujio, R. J.

Baba, K.

K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

Bloemer, M. J.

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Versatile waveguide polarizer incorporating an ultrathin silver film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1619–1621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buck, M.

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, C.

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, F.

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gotz, T.

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graczyk, J. F.

V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

Haus, J. W.

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Versatile waveguide polarizer incorporating an ultrathin silver film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1619–1621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jipson, V. B.

V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, H

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

Kawakami, S

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

Leitner, A.

A. Leitner, “Second-harmonic generation in metal island films consisting of oriented silver particles of low symmetry,” Mol. Phys. 70, 197–207 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lynt, H. N.

V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

Magruder, R. H.

Maxwell–Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell–Garnett, “Colors in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Mbise, G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niklasson, G. A.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Norrman, S.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Smith, G. B.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stookey, S. D.

Takase, F.

K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trager, F.

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, K

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

Wittig, J. E.

Yamaguchi, T.

E. Anno, T. Yamaguchi, “Optical absorption of Ni and Pd particles: enhanced correlation interaction between conduction electrons,” Surf. Sci. 286, 168–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Zuhr, R. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Gotz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, F. Trager, “Optical second-harmonic generation by supported metal clusters: size and shape effects,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 607–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

V. B. Jipson, H. N. Lynt, J. F. Graczyk, “Laser writing on discontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 27–29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Versatile waveguide polarizer incorporating an ultrathin silver film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1619–1621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Silver-gold compound metal island films prepared by using a two-step evaporation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 437–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Baba, F. Takase, M. Miyagi, “Magneto-optic media composed of ferromagnetic metal island films for glass and semiconductor substrates,” Electron. Lett. 32, 222–224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashi, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Durable write-once optical disk memories for 800 nm using silver island films,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1495–1496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

K. Baba, T. Okuno, M. Miyagi, “Resonance wavelengths of silver-gold compound metal island films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2372–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

A. Leitner, “Second-harmonic generation in metal island films consisting of oriented silver particles of low symmetry,” Mol. Phys. 70, 197–207 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. (1)

J. C. Maxwell–Garnett, “Colors in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

E. Anno, T. Yamaguchi, “Optical absorption of Ni and Pd particles: enhanced correlation interaction between conduction electrons,” Surf. Sci. 286, 168–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. (1)

D Ma, K Tsuchida, H Kataoka, S Kawakami, “Laminated polarizer with granular metallic films for short wavelength region,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J74-C-I, 552–558 (1991) in Japanese.

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical measured spectral transmittances of 5-nm-thick conventional Cu and Ni island films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated theoretical spectral transmittances of the Cu and Ni island films by using the Maxwell–Garnett theory where a spherical island shape, a transparency substrate, a fill fraction of 0.25, and an effective film thickness of 5 nm are assumed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes of the spectral transmittances of (a) Cu island films and (b) 3:2 CMI films by heating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical measured spectral transmittances of 5-nm-thick Cu–Ni CMI films with various mixture ratios.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface microstructures of (a) Cu island, (b) 4:1 CMI, (c) 3:2 CMI, and (d) Ni island films observed with an AFM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface microstructures of the 4:1 CMI film before heating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement system of the Faraday rotations in the CMI films.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured Faraday rotations of six layers of 5-nm-thick Cu island, CMI, and Ni island films in the magnetic field of 3.4 kOe.

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