Abstract

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors have unique properties including high-bandwidth, linearity, and biphase response that make them suitable as mixers and programmable weights for microwave and communications applications. An optical technique for microwave single-sideband modulation that uses GaAs MSM photodiodes as mixers is reported. It uses MSM Schottky photodiodes formed in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As materials system to detect microwave in-phase and quadrature signals on optical carriers. Modulation of the photodetector bias voltages results in a single-sideband modulation of the microwave signal. Radio frequency and undesired-sideband suppression of 36 and 27 dB, respectively, were achieved. The optical wavelength was 850 nm, and the bandwidth of the photodetectors was ≥29 GHz.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Schwartz, Information Transmission, Modulation, and Noise, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980).
  2. R. L. Miller, C. E. Nothnick, D. S. Bailey, Acoustic Charge Transport: Device Technology and Applications (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1992).
  3. M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. A. Riza, “Photonic control of phased arrays using analog vector modulation,” in 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), IEEE 96TH-8175, pp. 31–36.
  5. M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. E. Swekla, R. I. MacDonald, “Optoelectronic transversal filter,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1769–1770 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A VanderLugt, “Adaptive optical processor,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4005–4011 (1982);errata Appl. Opt. 22, 381–382 (1983).
  9. W. R. Beaudet, A. M. Bardos, A. VanderLugt, “Optical adaptive filter; experimental results,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 175–181 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetector arrays and architectures for acousto-optical signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 58–67 (1990).
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  11. G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for acousto-optic signal processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100–118 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Matsumoto, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, “Microwave phase shifter using optical waveguide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1523–1527 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. J. Rossek, C. E. Free, “Optically controlled microwave switching and phase shifting using GaAs FET’s,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 81–83 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. W. Anderson, B. D. Guenther, J. A. Hynecek, R. J. Keys, A. VanderLugt, “Role of photodetectors in optical signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2871–2886 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. VanderLugt, Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Ogawa, Y. Kamiya, “Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing, and optically pumped mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 39, 2045–2051 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).
  23. K. E. Bean, “Anisotropic etching of silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185–1193 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. J. Rossek, C. E. Free, “Optically controlled microwave switching and phase shifting using GaAs FET’s,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 81–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

H. Ogawa, Y. Kamiya, “Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing, and optically pumped mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 39, 2045–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsumoto, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, “Microwave phase shifter using optical waveguide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1523–1527 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Swekla, R. I. MacDonald, “Optoelectronic transversal filter,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1769–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetector arrays and architectures for acousto-optical signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 58–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. W. Anderson, B. D. Guenther, J. A. Hynecek, R. J. Keys, A. VanderLugt, “Role of photodetectors in optical signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2871–2886 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for acousto-optic signal processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. E. Bean, “Anisotropic etching of silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185–1193 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, E. M.

E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).

Anderson, G. W.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetector arrays and architectures for acousto-optical signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 58–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Anderson, B. D. Guenther, J. A. Hynecek, R. J. Keys, A. VanderLugt, “Role of photodetectors in optical signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2871–2886 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).

Bailey, D. S.

R. L. Miller, C. E. Nothnick, D. S. Bailey, Acoustic Charge Transport: Device Technology and Applications (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1992).

Bardos, A. M.

W. R. Beaudet, A. M. Bardos, A. VanderLugt, “Optical adaptive filter; experimental results,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 175–181 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bean, K. E.

K. E. Bean, “Anisotropic etching of silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185–1193 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Beaudet, W. R.

W. R. Beaudet, A. M. Bardos, A. VanderLugt, “Optical adaptive filter; experimental results,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 175–181 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Borsuk, G. M.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetector arrays and architectures for acousto-optical signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 58–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for acousto-optic signal processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chalfant, C. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coward, J. F.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decoster, D.

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dodds, D.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Free, C. E.

S. J. Rossek, C. E. Free, “Optically controlled microwave switching and phase shifting using GaAs FET’s,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 81–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gouy, J. P.

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. L.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

Henning, I. D.

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hynecek, J. A.

Izutsu, M.

K. Matsumoto, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, “Microwave phase shifter using optical waveguide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1523–1527 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, Y.

H. Ogawa, Y. Kamiya, “Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing, and optically pumped mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 39, 2045–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keys, R. J.

Kub, F. J.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetector arrays and architectures for acousto-optical signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 58–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).

Lee, J. N.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Long, J

E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).

MacDonald, R. I.

B. E. Swekla, R. I. MacDonald, “Optoelectronic transversal filter,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1769–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mack, I. A. G.

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, K.

K. Matsumoto, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, “Microwave phase shifter using optical waveguide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1523–1527 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. L.

R. L. Miller, C. E. Nothnick, D. S. Bailey, Acoustic Charge Transport: Device Technology and Applications (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1992).

Modolo, J. A.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollot, F.

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Newson, D. J.

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nothnick, C. E.

R. L. Miller, C. E. Nothnick, D. S. Bailey, Acoustic Charge Transport: Device Technology and Applications (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1992).

Ogawa, H.

H. Ogawa, Y. Kamiya, “Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing, and optically pumped mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 39, 2045–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Papanicoalou, N. A.

G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, R. L. Grant, N. A. Papanicoalou, J. A. Modolo, D. E. Brown, “Programmable frequency excision and adaptive filtering with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction photoconductor array,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1243–1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, “Photonic control of phased arrays using analog vector modulation,” in 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), IEEE 96TH-8175, pp. 31–36.

Rossek, S. J.

S. J. Rossek, C. E. Free, “Optically controlled microwave switching and phase shifting using GaAs FET’s,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 81–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, M.

M. Schwartz, Information Transmission, Modulation, and Noise, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980).

Seeds, A. J.

C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shikama, S.

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sieben, M.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spezio, A. E.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Alexander, A. E. Spezio, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, J Long, “Optical Target Synthesis: Interim Report FY95,” Report NRL/MR/5721--96-7819 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 30August1996).

Sueta, T.

K. Matsumoto, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, “Microwave phase shifter using optical waveguide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1523–1527 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Swekla, B. E.

B. E. Swekla, R. I. MacDonald, “Optoelectronic transversal filter,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1769–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Urey, Z.

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van de Casteele, J.

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A

VanderLugt, A.

G. W. Anderson, B. D. Guenther, J. A. Hynecek, R. J. Keys, A. VanderLugt, “Role of photodetectors in optical signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2871–2886 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. VanderLugt, Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

W. R. Beaudet, A. M. Bardos, A. VanderLugt, “Optical adaptive filter; experimental results,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 175–181 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vilcot, J. P.

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wake, D.

C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walklin, S.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. C.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization technology for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 355–388 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yee, T. K.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, “A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201–2205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. A. Modolo, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, I. A. G. Mack, “Wafer level high-frequency measurements of photodetector characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3059–3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson, I. D. Henning, “Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1796–1797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. Van de Casteele, J. P. Vilcot, J. P. Gouy, F. Mollot, D. Decoster, “Electro-optical mixing in an edge-coupled GaInAs/InP heterojunction phototransistor,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1030–1032 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Swekla, R. I. MacDonald, “Optoelectronic transversal filter,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1769–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, “10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 971–973 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, “Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225–2227 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. (2)

S. J. Rossek, C. E. Free, “Optically controlled microwave switching and phase shifting using GaAs FET’s,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 81–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds, D. Wake, “Two-terminal edge-coupled InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor optoelectronic mixer,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 7, 72–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

K. E. Bean, “Anisotropic etching of silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185–1193 (1978).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RF SSB modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical rf SSB modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental optical rf SSB modulator test arrangement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical SSB modulation results. MSM devices DAN2-1091A-A4-1020-100 μm and DAN2-1091A-B4-1020-100 μm. Horizontal and vertical scales 20 kHz/div and 10 dB/div, respectively. Center frequency, 51.752 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shift of 180° in MSM response and linearity of MSM response as MSM bias swept from -2 to +2 V (left to right). Modulation frequency on laser, 50 MHz. Upper curve, MSM response; lower curve, bias voltage: 50 ns/div, 10 mV/div (upper trace); 2 V/div (lower trace). Device DAN2-1091A-A2-0505-50 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MSM response to ≈200-fs pulses for bias voltages between 0.0 and 5.0 V. Device DAN2-1090B-B2-0505-12 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak MSM response variation with bias voltage to ≈200-fs pulses. Device DAN2-1090B-B2-0505-12 μm.

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