Abstract

A design analysis of a telecentric microchannel relay system developed for use with a smart-pixel-based photonic backplane is presented. The interconnect uses a clustered-window geometry in which optoelectronic device windows are grouped together about the axis of each microchannel. A Gaussian-beam propagation model is used to analyze the trade-off between window size, window density, transistor count per smart pixel, and lenslet f-number for three cases of window clustering. The results of this analysis show that, with this approach, a window density of 4000 windows/cm2 is obtained for a window size of 30 μm and a device plane separation of 25 mm. In addition, an optical power model is developed to determine the nominal power requirements of a 32 × 32 smart-pixel array as a function of window size. The power requirements are obtained assuming a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor inverter–amplifier and dual-rail multiple-quantum-well self-electro-optic-effect devices as the receiver stage of the smart pixel.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, “Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system: COSINE-III,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1815–1822 (1995).

1994

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

R. Lord, S. Aujla, “High density backplane connector,” Interconnect. Technol. 10, 8–11 (1994).

1993

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

L. Geppert, “The new contenders” IEEE Spectrum 30(12), 20–25 (1993).

D. A. B. Miller, “Novel analog self-electrooptic-effect devices” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 678–698 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

1992

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

G. F. Watson, “Interconnections and packaging,” IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–71 (1992).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

1991

H. S. Stone, J. Cocke, “Computer architecture in the1990s,” IEEE Computer 24(9), 30–38 (1991).

1990

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).

1982

Akta, M.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Aplin, G. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Aujla, S.

R. Lord, S. Aujla, “High density backplane connector,” Interconnect. Technol. 10, 8–11 (1994).

Ayliffe, M. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Bacon, D. D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

Baets, R.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Beckman, M. G.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

Belland, P.

Blondelle, J.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Boisset, G. C.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Brubaker, J. L.

Buchholz, D. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

Carson, R. F.

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

Cocke, J.

H. S. Stone, J. Cocke, “Computer architecture in the1990s,” IEEE Computer 24(9), 30–38 (1991).

Craft, D. C.

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

Crem, J. P.

Crisci, R. J.

d’Asaro, L. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

De Dobbelaere, P.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Demeester, P.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Dhoedt, B.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Focht, M. W.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Freund, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Geppert, L.

L. Geppert, “The new contenders” IEEE Spectrum 30(12), 20–25 (1993).

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Guth, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Hinton, H. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “A smart pixel design for a dynamic free-space optical backplane,” presented at the IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, 11–13 July 1994.

H. S. Hinton, “Photonic devices and systems major project,” Annual Rep. (Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research, Montreal, Canada, 1994).

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Hsiao, W.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Hui, S. P.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Jahns, J.

Kabal, D.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Karube, S.-I.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Kerbis, E.

Kiamilev, F. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Kim, N. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Kim, N. K.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

Kossives, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Leibenguth, R.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Leiben-guth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Liu, Y. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Lord, R.

R. Lord, S. Aujla, “High density backplane connector,” Interconnect. Technol. 10, 8–11 (1994).

Lovejoy, M. L.

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

Maeda, T.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Matsumoto, T.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

D. A. B. Miller, “Novel analog self-electrooptic-effect devices” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 678–698 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Noguchi, K.

Novotny, R. A.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Otazo, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Paulasek, D.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Przbylek, G. J.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Redmond, I.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “Experimental results of a 64-channel, free-space optical interconnect network for massively parallel processing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 149–152.

Roberts, B.

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Robertson, B.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Robertson, W. M.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

Rozier, R. G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Saito, T.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Sakamoto, T.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Sakano, T.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

Schenfeld, E.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “Experimental results of a 64-channel, free-space optical interconnect network for massively parallel processing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 149–152.

Seigal, P. K.

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

Shang, A. Z.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Simmons, J.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

Smith, L. E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, J. Cocke, “Computer architecture in the1990s,” IEEE Computer 24(9), 30–38 (1991).

Sun, L.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

Szymanski, T. H.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “A smart pixel design for a dynamic free-space optical backplane,” presented at the IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, 11–13 July 1994.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Tseng, B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Van Daele, P.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

Walker, J. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

Walker, S. J.

Walker, S. L.

Watson, G. F.

G. F. Watson, “Interconnections and packaging,” IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–71 (1992).

Wojcik, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).

Yoshida, S.

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przbylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).

IEEE Computer

H. S. Stone, J. Cocke, “Computer architecture in the1990s,” IEEE Computer 24(9), 30–38 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. A. B. Miller, “Novel analog self-electrooptic-effect devices” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 678–698 (1993).

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

M. Akta, S.-I. Karube, T. Sakamoto, T. Saito, S. Yoshida, T. Maeda, “A 250-Mb/s 32 × 32 CMOS Crosspoint LSI for ATM switching systems,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1433–1439 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. K. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. d’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

IEEE Spectrum

G. F. Watson, “Interconnections and packaging,” IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–71 (1992).

L. Geppert, “The new contenders” IEEE Spectrum 30(12), 20–25 (1993).

Interconnect. Technol.

R. Lord, S. Aujla, “High density backplane connector,” Interconnect. Technol. 10, 8–11 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. Dhoedt, P. De Dobbelaere, J. Blondelle, P. Van Daele, P. Demeester, R. Baets, “Monolithic integration of diffractive lenses with LED arrays for board-to-board free space optical interconnect” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1065–1073 (1995).

J. Metals

R. F. Carson, P. K. Seigal, D. C. Craft, M. L. Lovejoy, “Future manufacturing techniques for stacked MCM interconnections,” J. Metals 46(6), 51–55 (1994).

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).

Other

IEEE Standard for Futurebus+, Standard 896.2, P. M. Kelty, ed. (IEEE, New York, 1991).

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Liu, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, D. V. Plant, D. R. Rolston, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrater,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 223–224.

H. S. Hinton, “Photonic devices and systems major project,” Annual Rep. (Canadian Institute for Telecommunications Research, Montreal, Canada, 1994).

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “Experimental results of a 64-channel, free-space optical interconnect network for massively parallel processing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of Optical Computing, vol. 139 of IOP Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994), pp. 149–152.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Paulasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrater system,” presented at the Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Francisco, Calif., 30 October–2 November 1995, paper PD2.4.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leiben-guth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Implementation of a photonic page buffer based on GaAs MQW modulators bonded directly over active silicon VLSI circuits,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 2.1–2.3

MOSIS CMOSX 0.8 micron CMOS Vendor Rules, Version 1.4 for Hewlett-Packard n-well fabrication process (MOSIS, Marina del Ray, Calif., 1994).

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Roberts, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET-SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “A smart pixel design for a dynamic free-space optical backplane,” presented at the IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, 11–13 July 1994.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Concept of a double-sided-board microchannel interconnect, (b) 4-f telecentric relay with clustered windows below each lenslet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Defining parameters of the interconnect model (front view), (b) multiple beams passing through a single lenslet (side view).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Routing out of a cluster with one metal trace line, (b) Routing out of a cluster with two metal trace lines (conceptual drawing).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diameters given by the far edges of two beams to calculate the effective f/#.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Specific cluster geometries analyzed: (a) half a smart pixel, (b) one smart pixel, (c) four smart pixels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size of lenslet as a function of window size and cluster size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum window size permitted as a function of cluster size.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

f/# as a function of window size and cluster size.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two-board modulator-based optical interconnect (see Table 1 for the definitions of the optical elements used).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical power delivered through the optical system for one receiver, for which the efficiency of the lenslet is dependent on the f/#. A normalized input power of 1W is used.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Number of transistors per lenslet as a function of window size and cluster size.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Window density as a function of window size and cluster size.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) XY misalignment of a single window per lenslet, (b) XY misalignment of a 4 × 4 cluster per lenslet.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Coupling efficiency for a misalignment along the x axis for a single window per lenslet and a 4 × 4 cluster per lenslet.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Coupling efficiency for an angular misalignment for a single window per lenslet and a 4 × 4 cluster per lenslet.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

CMOS SEED receiver circuit.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Lumped parameter model of the CMOS SEED receiver circuit.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(a) Plot of a first-order slew rate for which the lumped parameter model is used, (b) SPICE plot of slew rate for the CMOS SEED receiver circuit.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Minimum optical power required for a single receiver circuit and a 32 × 32 smart-pixel array, given bit rates of 51 and 155 Mbps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal Efficiencies for the Optical Components used in the Two-Board Interconnect of Fig. 9

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω b = ω 0 [ 1 + ( λ f / π ω 0 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
d ω = 2 r 0 = 3 ω 0 ,
2 r b = 3 ω b ,
r b = d ω 2 [ 1 + ( 9 λ f / π d ω 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
l h = M d ω + ( M 1 ) d s ,
l v = N d ω + ( N 1 ) d s ,
l = max l h , l v .
D L = l d ω + 2 r b .
D L = f ( M , N , d ω , d s ) .
d s * = M w + ( M + 1 ) s .
d s = ( d s * / 2 ) = [ M w + ( M + 1 ) s ] / 2 .
W Den = M N / D L 2 .
f / # = f Diameter ,
Diameter  = 2 r b + [ ( l h d ω ) 2 + ( l v d ω ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
T x perCluster = ( D L 2 l h l v ) T x Density ,
d [ D L ( d ωMAX ) ] d ( d ω ) = 0 ,
T min = λ [ 1 + ( 2 f / # ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ T min / δ ,
η = [ Δ π sin ( πΔ ) ] 2 .
CE ( Δ x , Δ y ) = erf ( D L / 2 Δ x κ , D L / 2 Δ x κ ) × erf ( D L / 2 Δ y κ , D L / 2 Δ y κ ) ,
erf ( z 1 , z 2 ) = 2 π z 1 z 2 exp ( t 2 ) d t .
CE ( Δ x , Δ y ) = erf ( D L / 2 s x Δ x κ , D l / 2 s x Δ x κ ) × erf ( D L / 2 s y Δ y κ , D L / 2 s y Δ y κ ) ,
C T = C M 1 + C M 2 + C gn + C g p ,
Δ I MAX = I p 1 I p 2 .
Slew  = Δ I MAX / C T ,
Δ V x = ( Slew ) Δ t .
C M 1 = ( 0 . 1 × 10 15 ) ( d ω 2 ) ,
C M 2 = ( 0 . 1 × 10 15 ) ( d ω 2 ) ,
I p 1 = ( 0 . 5 ) ( 0 . 6 ) ( η eff ) P IN ,
I p 2 = ( 0 . 5 ) ( 0 . 3 ) ( η eff ) P IN ,
Δ t = 1 / bps ,
P IN = 1 0 . 15 η eff [ ( 0 . 2 × 10 15 ) d ω 2 + ( 0 . 2 × 10 12 ) ] × ( bps ) ( Δ V swing ) ;
P TOTAL = ( M N 2 ) p IN .

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