Abstract

Compact telescope configurations incorporating a holographic correction of large, low-quality primary collectors are demonstrated. Aberration correction is demonstrated with an off-axis laser beacon located close to the primary. This arrangement results in a compact telescope with minimum obscuration. The reduction of additional off-axis aberrations introduced by the method is also demonstrated.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).
  2. J. Munch, R. Wuerker, “Holographic technique for correcting aberrations in a telescope,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1312–1317 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Munch, R. Wuerker, L. Heflinger, “Wideband holographic correction of an aberrated telescope objective,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2440–2445 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Upatnieks, A. VanderLugt, E. Leith, “Correction of lens aberrations by means of holograms,” Appl. Opt. 5, 589–593 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Kogelnik, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic imaging through a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 273–274 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

1993 (1)

G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

Bailey, M.

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

Borra, E. F.

G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

Campbell, T.

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

Harrington, R.

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

Heflinger, L.

Kendall, B.

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

Kogelnik, H.

Leith, E.

Lemelin, G.

G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

Lessard, R. A.

G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

Munch, J.

Pennington, K. S.

Schroeder, L.

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

Upatnieks, J.

VanderLugt, A.

Wuerker, R.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

G. Lemelin, R. A. Lessard, E. F. Borra, “An investigation of holographic correctors for astronomical telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 274, 983–992 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (1)

L. Schroeder, M. Bailey, R. Harrington, B. Kendall, T. Campbell, “Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles,” NASA Tech. Paper 3469 (NASA, Langley, Va., 1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic concept of holographic correction for a refractor: (a) a diffraction-limited, collimated beam passes through the aberrated lens and a secondary lens images the primary onto the plane of the hologram. A reference beam interferes with this first beam to produce the image hologram. (b) The original diffraction-limited, collimated beam is aberrated by the lens before reconstructing the original reference beam from the hologram. Because the object beam is the same as the one used to write the hologram initially, the reconstructed reference beam is diffraction limited and aberration free. (c) If a distant object were used instead, then the diffracted light at the hologram could be used to produce an aberration-free image of the object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Off-axis correction of a refractor. The dotted rays show the recording of the hologram, H, using an off-axis beacon located to the left of the aberrated lens. The solid rays show the reconstruction and correction of the aberrations by an object wave from infinity, imaged at plane I. A cylindrical lens (c.l.) is used to compensate for the astigmatism. Secondary lenses l1 and l2 produce identical, accurately superimposed images of the primary lens at H.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the holographic correction applied to an aberrated 200-mm diameter, f/5 refracting lens: (a) the resolution chart as imaged on axis by the aberrated telescope, without correction. This scene includes column 2. (b) Magnified central portion of the resolution chart after holographic correction; a cylindrical lens is used to correct for astigmatism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Off-axis scheme for holographic correction of a reflector: (a) a spatially filtered beacon, placed at the off-axis position shown, illuminates the mirror. A camera lens collimates the reflected light and images the mirror onto the holographic plate (H). The path-matched reference beam interferes with the object beam to form the image hologram. (b) On-axis reconstruction, using a parabolic mirror collimator to place the test beacon (spatial filter) at infinity. Off-axis astigmatism is removed from the reconstructed beacon by the use of a lens train as shown; b.s., beam splitter; s.f., spatial filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry used in the analysis of the correction of surface defects: (a) the off-axis ray from the beacon (B) strikes the mirror surface at P(u, υ), at an angle α to the normal (a ray from the radius of curvature). The on-axis reconstructing ray from infinity (I) forms an angle β with the normal at the same point. (b) A ray from the recording beacon is shown reflecting off a bump on the primary mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculations of the expected correction from the off-axis scheme for a reflector: The relative path difference, P.D. (OPD/h) is plotted over the mirror surface for a mirror with x = ρ = 0.25 m and R = 5.2 m. The correction is perfect at the edge of the mirror where the OPD is always zero. The correction is a minimum at the center, where a bump can be reduced in size by a factor of 870 (see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results for a large-scale aberrated reflector: (a) interferogram of surface aberration before correction; (b) after correction, the remaining error is seven to eight waves.

Equations (3)

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OPD = 2 h ( cos β cos α ) .
OPD = 2 h R × [ x u + R y + R z y z ( x 2 + 2 x u + y 2 + 2 R z 2 y z ) 1 / 2 ( R z ) ] ,
OPD = 2 h R [ ρ u + R 2 ( ρ 2 + 2 ρ u + R 2 ) 1 / 2 ( R 2 u 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 ] .

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