Abstract

An optical air mass flux sensor based on a compact, room-temperature diode laser in a fiber-coupled delivery system has been tested on a full-scale gas turbine engine. The sensor is based on simultaneous measurements of O2 density and Doppler-shifted velocity along a line of sight across the inlet duct. Extensive tests spanning engine power levels from idle to full afterburner demonstrate accuracy and precision of the order of 1–2% of full scale in density, velocity, and mass flux. The precision-limited velocity at atmospheric pressure was as low as 40 cm/s. Multiple data-reduction procedures are quantitatively compared to suggest optimal strategies for flight sensor packages.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. J. A. Shirley, M. Winter, “Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Y. Chang, M. D. DiRosa, D. F. Davidson, R. K. Hanson, “Rapid tuning CW laser technique for measurements of gas velocity, temperature, pressure, density, and mass flux using NO,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3011–3022 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. G. Allen, W. J. Kessler, “Simultaneous water vapor concentration and temperature measurements using 1.31 μm diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 483–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

M. P. Arroyo, S. Langlois, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption technique for simultaneous measurements of multiple gasdynamic parameters in high-speed flows containing water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3296–3307 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent highspeed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

Allen, M.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Arroyo, M. P.

Brosnan, S. J.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.

Carleton, K. L.

Chang, A. Y.

Davidson, D. F.

Davis, S.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

DiRosa, M. D.

Hanson, R. K.

Hiller, B.

Kessler, W.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

Komine, H.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.

Langlois, S.

Lee, M. P.

Legner, H.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent highspeed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Litton, A. B.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.

McManus, K.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent highspeed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Northam, G. B.

M. W. Smith, G. B. Northam, “Application of absorption filter-planar Doppler velocimetry to sonic and supersonic jets,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995.

Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D.

Parker, T.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

Philippe, L. C.

Shirley, J. A.

J. A. Shirley, M. Winter, “Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993.

Smith, M. W.

M. W. Smith, G. B. Northam, “Application of absorption filter-planar Doppler velocimetry to sonic and supersonic jets,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995.

Sonnenfroh, D.

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stappaerts, E. Q.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.

Winter, M.

J. A. Shirley, M. Winter, “Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993.

AIAA J. (2)

M. Allen, S. Davis, W. Kessler, H. Legner, K. McManus, P. Mulhall, T. Parker, D. Sonnenfroh, “Velocity field imaging in supersonic reacting flows near atmospheric pressure,” AIAA J. 32, 1676–1682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, W. J. Kessler, “Simultaneous water vapor concentration and temperature measurements using 1.31 μm diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 483–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent highspeed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

M. W. Smith, G. B. Northam, “Application of absorption filter-planar Doppler velocimetry to sonic and supersonic jets,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995.

J. A. Shirley, M. Winter, “Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993.

H. Komine, S. J. Brosnan, A. B. Litton, E. Q. Stappaerts, “Real-time, Doppler global velocimetry,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper 91-0337.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of diode laser air mass flux sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example line shape of the PQ(11, 10) transition at 13086.1 cm−1 recorded in laboratory air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example Doppler-shifted line shapes in a low-speed wind tunnel at 118 m/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibration line shapes recorded at an engine test stand prior to tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of O2 line shapes recorded in full-scale engine tests at (a) idle, (b) mil-spec, (c) full-afterburner conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of optical density measurements to Pitot-static air data as a function of engine power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of optical velocity measurements obtained with Voigt and FWHM data-reduction methods to Pitot-static air data values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the rms standard deviation of diode laser-based air mass flux measurements on a full-scale Pratt and Whitney F-100 engine from idle to mil-spec power levels. Results shown were obtained with high-resolution data.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Full-Scale Engine Test Conditions

Equations (2)

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I = I o exp [ S ( T ) g ( ω ω o ) N l ]
V = Δ ω ω o c ( cos θ 1 cos θ 2 ) ,

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