Abstract

A new technique has enabled us to resolve the strong UV absorption spectrum in UV-exposed germanosilicate preforms. Our results show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the large photoinduced absorption changes between 165 and 300 nm (~700 dB/mm at 195 nm has been observed) can account for ~3 × 10−4 of index change at 1.5 μm. The thermal-annealing dynamics of the photoinduced absorption changes also resemble those of fiber gratings, evidence that the color-center model of photosensitivity plays an important role in the photoinduced index changes in UV-written fiber gratings. We also find that the photoinduced absorption changes depend linearly on germania (i.e., germanium dioxide) concentrations in the preforms, and their exposure-time dependence can be fitted with a stretched-exponential function.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, “Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 102–104 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).
  6. A. J. Cohen, H. L. Smith, “Ultraviolet and infrared absorption of fused germania,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7, 301–306 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Yuen, “Ultraviolet absorption studies of germanium silicate glasses,” Appl. Opt. 21, 136–140 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibres on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “A study of UV absorption in germanosilicate preforms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 243–244.
  10. L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2106–2111 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg gratings formation and germanosilicate fibre photosensitivity,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).
  12. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).
  13. H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Poirier, S. Thibault, J. Lauzon, F. Ouellette, “Dynamic and orientational behavior of UV-induced luminescence bleaching in Ge-doped silica optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 870–872 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. L. Gilbert, H. Patrick, “Comparison of UV-induced fluorescence and Bragg grating growth in optical fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 244.
  20. J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. D. Gallagher, U. L. Österberg, “Spectroscopy of defects in germanium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2771–2778 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1994

1993

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Poirier, S. Thibault, J. Lauzon, F. Ouellette, “Dynamic and orientational behavior of UV-induced luminescence bleaching in Ge-doped silica optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 870–872 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Gallagher, U. L. Österberg, “Spectroscopy of defects in germanium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2771–2778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibres on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, “Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 102–104 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1982

1958

A. J. Cohen, H. L. Smith, “Ultraviolet and infrared absorption of fused germania,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7, 301–306 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Archambault, J. L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibres on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

Bilodeau, F.

Byers, J. D.

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).

Cohen, A. J.

A. J. Cohen, H. L. Smith, “Ultraviolet and infrared absorption of fused germania,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7, 301–306 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2106–2111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “A study of UV absorption in germanosilicate preforms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 243–244.

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friesner, R. A.

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. D.

M. D. Gallagher, U. L. Österberg, “Spectroscopy of defects in germanium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2771–2778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

S. L. Gilbert, H. Patrick, “Comparison of UV-induced fluorescence and Bragg grating growth in optical fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 244.

Glenn, W. H.

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, “Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 102–104 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).

Hill, K.

Johnson, D. C.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lauzon, J.

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg gratings formation and germanosilicate fibre photosensitivity,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibres on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg gratings formation and germanosilicate fibre photosensitivity,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

Österberg, U. L.

M. D. Gallagher, U. L. Österberg, “Spectroscopy of defects in germanium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2771–2778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

Parsons, W. S.

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H.

S. L. Gilbert, H. Patrick, “Comparison of UV-induced fluorescence and Bragg grating growth in optical fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 244.

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2106–2111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “A study of UV absorption in germanosilicate preforms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 243–244.

Pinkstone, J.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2106–2111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “A study of UV absorption in germanosilicate preforms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 243–244.

Poirier, M.

Poole, S. B.

M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2106–2111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, “Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 102–104 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, D. N. Payne, “A study of UV absorption in germanosilicate preforms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 243–244.

Salathé, R. P.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. D.

M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. L.

A. J. Cohen, H. L. Smith, “Ultraviolet and infrared absorption of fused germania,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7, 301–306 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, S.

Weber, S. E.

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

Yuen, M. J.

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci.

M. D. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibres,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron Lett.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loadings as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron Lett. 29, 1191–1192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, “Spectral characterisation of photoinduced high efficient Bragg gratings in standard telecommunication fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 47–49 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by a single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibres on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 29, 385–386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. D. Gallagher, U. L. Österberg, “Spectroscopy of defects in germanium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2771–2778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

A. J. Cohen, H. L. Smith, “Ultraviolet and infrared absorption of fused germania,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7, 301–306 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

J. D. Byers, W. S. Parsons, R. A. Friesner, S. E. Weber, “Efficient numerical simulation of the time-dependence of electronic-energy transfer in polymers: short-range transfer and foster trapping,” Macromolecules 23, 4835–4844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Hand, Y. T. Chow, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, “Optically-induced creation, transformation and organisation of defects and colour-centres in optical fibres,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 47–54 (1991).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg gratings formation and germanosilicate fibre photosensitivity,” in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, “Behaviours of spectral transmissions of photorefractive filters written in germania-doped fibres: writing and erasing experiments,” in Photosensitivity and Self-Organization in Optical Fibers and Waveguides, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 88–112 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured Δα in a 0.2-N.A. preform (10.2 mol. % GeO2) after an exposure of 20 min at 0.5 (mJ/mm2)/pulse fitted with three Gaussian functions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Growth of Δα242 and Δα195 in a 0.18-N.A. preform (8.3 mol. % GeO2) at 0.9 (mJ/mm2)/pulse and calculated Δn at 1.5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal annealing of UV-induced changes in a 0.2-N.A. preform (10.2 mol. % GeO2) after an exposure of 20 min at 0.6 (mJ/mm2)/pulse. The heating rate was 10 °C/min, and the sample stayed for 10 min. at each point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the UV-induced changes on germania concentrations after 20-min exposure at 0.6 (mJ/mm2)/pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse-energy density dependence of the absorption change in a 0.18-N.A. preform (8.3 mol. % GeO2) after 20-min exposure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dynamics of the absorption change at 248.5 nm at 2.5 (mJ/mm2)/pulse in a 0.22-N.A. preform (12.5 mol. % GeO2).

Equations (3)

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Δ n ( ω ) = c π i Δ α i B i ω i 2 - ω 2 ,
Δ n = ( 2.34 Δ α 242 + 4.96 Δ α 195 + 5.62 Δ α 256 ) × 10 - 7 ,
α 248.5 ( t ) = α 248.5 ( ) + [ α 248.5 ( 0 ) - α 248.5 ( ) ] exp [ - ( t / t 0 ) β ] ,

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