Abstract

We present a detailed analysis of a standing evanescent wave that is caused by total internal reflection of an Ar-ion laser beam on a glass prism and investigate the coupling to a subwavelength dielectric tip of a photon-scanning tunneling microscope that is raster scanned at a close distance over the prism surface. The intensity of the evanescent field is spatially modulated with a period of 239.2 nm. It decays exponentially with a constant of 103.9 nm with increasing distance from the prism surface. Precise measurements of the standing evanescent wave can be used to calibrate the scanner and permit one to determine the spatial resolution and the coupling efficiency of the tip.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM),” Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc. 12, 243–312 (1991).
  2. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992) and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).
  4. E. A. Ash, G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical comparison,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Barchiesi, D. Van Labeke, “Application of Mie scattering of evanescent waves to scanning tunnelling optical microscopy theory,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1239–1254 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Salomon, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Sample–tip coupling efficiencies of the photon-scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2009–2015 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975), Chap. 1, pp. 47–51.
  27. S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1993

D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical comparison,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Barchiesi, D. Van Labeke, “Application of Mie scattering of evanescent waves to scanning tunnelling optical microscopy theory,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1239–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM),” Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc. 12, 243–312 (1991).

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Salomon, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Sample–tip coupling efficiencies of the photon-scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2009–2015 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972

E. A. Ash, G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1928

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Achten, F.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash, G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical comparison,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Barchiesi, D. Van Labeke, “Application of Mie scattering of evanescent waves to scanning tunnelling optical microscopy theory,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1239–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, D.

D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bölger, B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975), Chap. 1, pp. 47–51.

Chilcott, D. W.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Fornel, F.

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Salomon, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Sample–tip coupling efficiencies of the photon-scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2009–2015 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Salomon, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Sample–tip coupling efficiencies of the photon-scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2009–2015 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

Hawley, D.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jahncke, C. J.

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. E.

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kook, S.-K.

D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuck, N.

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lesniewska, E.

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, P. J.

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Muray, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash, G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM),” Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc. 12, 243–312 (1991).

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reddick, R. C.

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Salomon, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Sample–tip coupling efficiencies of the photon-scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2009–2015 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, S. L.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Tan, W.

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical comparison,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Barchiesi, D. Van Labeke, “Application of Mie scattering of evanescent waves to scanning tunnelling optical microscopy theory,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1239–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vecht, A.

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975), Chap. 1, pp. 47–51.

Wolfe, R.

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res.

S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, J. P. Goudonnet, I. Lee, T. L. Ferrell, “Spectroscopy and imaging using the photon scanning-tunneling microscope,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 377–382 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc.

D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM),” Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc. 12, 243–312 (1991).

Am. J. Phys.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54, 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Kuck, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, A. Vecht, “Visible electroluminescent subwavelength point source of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(2), 139–141 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Luminesc.

R. Kopelman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, W. Tan, “Evanescent luminescence and nanometer-size light source,” J. Luminesc. 48–49, 871–875 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

D. Barchiesi, D. Van Labeke, “Application of Mie scattering of evanescent waves to scanning tunnelling optical microscopy theory,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1239–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem.

D. Birnbaum, S.-K. Kook, R. Kopelman, “Near-field scanning optical spectroscopy: spatially resolved spectra of microcrystals and nanoaggregates in doped polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3091–3094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

T. L. Ferrell, J. P. Goudonnet, R. C. Reddick, S. L. Sharp, R. J. Warmack, “The photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 525–530 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

E. A. Ash, G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. De Fornel, E. Lesniewska, L. Salomon, J. P. Goudonnet, “First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1–5 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultra-microscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Phys. Lett. A

P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, “Spectroscopy in the evanescent field with an analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Lett. A 145, 343–347 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, C. J. Jahncke, C. E. Johnson, R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “Analytical photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 6750–6753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, M. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 13, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, F. Achten, B. Bölger, “Evanescent-field optical microscopy: effects of polarization, tip shape and radiative waves,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 416–421 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975), Chap. 1, pp. 47–51.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of a PSTM for collecting photons from a standing evanescent wave bound to the surface of a prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour of the standing evanescent wave measured at constant intensity. The gray scale represents the tip–surface distance adjusted by the feedback loop. The dark fringes correspond to the nodes, and the bright fringes correspond to the intensity maxima. The period is 239.2 nm in the x direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial modulation of the standing evanescent wave along the propagation direction of the two interfering waves (x axis) and the decay of the intensity with the increasing tip–surface distance (the z direction). The ordinate represents the optical power measured by the detector at the output face of the fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Line section through the data of Fig. 3 along the z direction at an intensity maximum and at a minimum, (b) Line section through the data of Fig. 3 along the x axis at a tip–surface separation of z′ = 100 nm used for determining the effective tip diameter Δ = 80 ± 1 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Global analysis of the distance dependence of coupling between the evanescent field and the tip. The dashed curve P(z)/PA was obtained by averaging the experimental data of Fig. 3 over four modulation periods along the x direction. It is normalized by the mean power PA = 3.38 nW, which would be transmitted perpendicularly through the effective aperture area σ of the tip in contact with the surface. The dotted curve is a line fit of the transmission function given in Eq. (3) to the experimental data and gives a coupling efficiency ∊ between the evanescent field and the dielectric tip of 63%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Operating the Ar-ion laser on all lines; the beats between the different wavelength components become visible on the standing evanescent wave. The image was recorded in the constant intensity mode with a power set point of 230 pW. (b) The section along the dashed–dot line in (a) represents the z movement of the tip adjusted by the feedback loop.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( x , z ) = E 0 exp ( z / d ) exp [ i ( 2 π / λ ) x ] ,
| E 0 | 2 = 4 n 1 2 cos 2 θ n 1 2 n 2 2 | E i | 2 , λ = λ 0 n 1 sin θ , d = λ 0 / n 2 2 π [ ( n 1 / n 2 sin θ ) 2 1 ] 1 / 2 .
I ( x , z ) = I 0 exp ( 2 z / d ) [ 1 + r 2 + 2 r cos ( 2 π Λ x + ϕ ) ] .
T ( z ) = 1 cos β cosh ( 2 z d ) cos β ,
cos ( β / 2 ) = n 1 2 cos ( 2 θ ) + n 2 2 n 1 2 n 2 2 .
P ( z ) = I i cos θ ( 1 + r 2 ) σ T ( z ) ,
A exp = A u exp [ ( π Δ Λ ) 2 ] .

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