Abstract

We report new experimental results on the spectral, thermal, and orientational characteristics of stoichiometry-dependent mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 crystals. In currently available material, this absorption poses an obstacle to the power scaling of the 2-μm-pumped AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Preliminary experiments have indicated that this absorption could be substantially reduced by optimization of the process parameters during crystal growth and annealing. OPO output powers approaching 10 W may be achievable by using optimized material.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).
  3. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.
  4. J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivity of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  5. For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).
  6. R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Recent developments in the growth of chalcopyrite crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 113–119 (1987).
  7. N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The dependence of the polarized absorption spectrum on the aspect ratio has been explored most extensively in glasses, where the aspect ratio can be varied over a wide range by stretching or compressing a softened glass. See for example T. P. Seward, “Some unusual optical properties of elongated phases in glasses,” in The Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, G. H. Frischat, ed. (Trans Tech Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1977), pp. 342–347, and references cited therein.

1992

N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Recent developments in the growth of chalcopyrite crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 113–119 (1987).

1986

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. D.

J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivity of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Catella, G. C.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

Chicklis, E. P.

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).

Cooper, D. G.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

DeDomenico, R.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R. S.

N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Recent developments in the growth of chalcopyrite crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 113–119 (1987).

Kim, N. H.

N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knights, M. G.

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).

Marquardt, C. L.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

Pollak, T. M.

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

Route, R. K.

N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Recent developments in the growth of chalcopyrite crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 113–119 (1987).

Schepler, K. L.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).

Schunemann, P. G.

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

Seward, T. P.

The dependence of the polarized absorption spectrum on the aspect ratio has been explored most extensively in glasses, where the aspect ratio can be varied over a wide range by stretching or compressing a softened glass. See for example T. P. Seward, “Some unusual optical properties of elongated phases in glasses,” in The Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, G. H. Frischat, ed. (Trans Tech Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1977), pp. 342–347, and references cited therein.

Storm, M. E.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986);G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49 –12.05 μm,” paper ELT7.1 presented at LEOS'90, Boston Mass., 1990.
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

N. H. Kim, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1215–1220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, “Recent developments in the growth of chalcopyrite crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 113–119 (1987).

Other

The dependence of the polarized absorption spectrum on the aspect ratio has been explored most extensively in glasses, where the aspect ratio can be varied over a wide range by stretching or compressing a softened glass. See for example T. P. Seward, “Some unusual optical properties of elongated phases in glasses,” in The Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, G. H. Frischat, ed. (Trans Tech Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1977), pp. 342–347, and references cited therein.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992Opt. Lett., (to be published).

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” presented at 1992 Optical Society of American Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., 1992.

J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivity of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

For spectrum in ZnGeP2 see P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient, high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.380–383;for general review of polarization effects see G. A. Medvedkin, Yu. V. Rud, M. A. Tairov, “Photoelectric anisotropy of II-IV-V2 ternary semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 11–50 (1989).

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