Abstract

All the information necessary to achieve reasonably efficient coupling of semiconductor lasers to single-mode fibers is collected from the literature, derived when necessary, and presented in mainly tabular form. Formulas for determining the laser beam waist radius and the fiber-mode radius are given. Imaging relations connecting these values with the object and the image distances, including thick-lens correction factors, are given for three types of lenses: ball, hemisphere, and graded index. Sources for these lenses are indicated, and a discussion is also given about ways of reducing feedback effects and about the use of wedge-ended fibers.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kogelnik, “Matching of optical modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 334–337 (1964).
  2. H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mass—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 455–494 (1965).
  3. S. A. Self, “Focusing of spherical Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 22, 658–661 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).
  5. Deltronic Crystal Industries, Inc., 60 Harding Avenue, Dover, N.J. 07801.
  6. Optics Guide 5, Melles Griot, 1770 Kettering Street, Irvine, Calif. 92714.
  7. H. Izadpanah, L. A. Reith, “Microlens fabrication technique for an efficient laser/single mode fiber coupling” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and InterconnectsT. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Gallawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 306–310 (1987).
  8. NSG America, Inc., a subsidiary of Nippon Sheet Glass Co., 28 Worlds Fair Drive, Somerset, N.J. 08873.
  9. W. Bludau, R. Rossberg, “Characterization of laser-to-fiber coupling techniques by their optical feedback,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1933–1939 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Ladany, A. N. Dholakia, “Wedge coupling of lasers into multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 960–961 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Terry Mack, NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication).
  12. V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).

1965 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mass—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 455–494 (1965).

1964 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Matching of optical modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 334–337 (1964).

Bludau, W.

Bour, D. P.

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Curtis, L.

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Dholakia, A. N.

Izadpanah, H.

H. Izadpanah, L. A. Reith, “Microlens fabrication technique for an efficient laser/single mode fiber coupling” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and InterconnectsT. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Gallawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 306–310 (1987).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mass—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 455–494 (1965).

H. Kogelnik, “Matching of optical modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 334–337 (1964).

Ladany, I.

Mack, Terry

Terry Mack, NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).

Reith, L. A.

H. Izadpanah, L. A. Reith, “Microlens fabrication technique for an efficient laser/single mode fiber coupling” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and InterconnectsT. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Gallawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 306–310 (1987).

Rossberg, R.

Self, S. A.

Shah, V.

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Vodhanel, Richard S.

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Young, W. C.

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).

H. Kogelnik, “Matching of optical modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 334–337 (1964).

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mass—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 455–494 (1965).

Other (6)

Terry Mack, NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication).

V. Shah, L. Curtis, Richard S. Vodhanel, W. C. Young, D. P. Bour, “Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge shaped fiber endface,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 199.

Deltronic Crystal Industries, Inc., 60 Harding Avenue, Dover, N.J. 07801.

Optics Guide 5, Melles Griot, 1770 Kettering Street, Irvine, Calif. 92714.

H. Izadpanah, L. A. Reith, “Microlens fabrication technique for an efficient laser/single mode fiber coupling” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and InterconnectsT. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Gallawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 306–310 (1987).

NSG America, Inc., a subsidiary of Nippon Sheet Glass Co., 28 Worlds Fair Drive, Somerset, N.J. 08873.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coupling geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Approximation to the wedge.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Beam Angle and Beam Waist Radius

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Table 2 Imaging Formula Parameters

Equations (12)

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w f a = 0.65 + ( 1.619 / V 1.5 ) + ( 2.879 / V 6 ) ,
V = [ 2 π λ a ( n 1 2 - n 2 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ,
s o = f - Δ + f [ ( w l / w f ) 2 - ( z R / f ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
s i = f - Δ + ( w f / w l ) 2 ( s o + Δ - f ) ,
s o = R n - 1 [ 1 - 1 n ( w l / w f ) 2 ] ,
R = ( n - 1 ) z R ( w l w f ) [ 1 - 1 n 2 ( w l w f ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
θ ( FWHM ) ( 21.5 ) ( n - 1 ) π             or 31 ° .
n = n o ( 1 - 2 r 2 / b 2 ) .
n = n o ( 1 - g 2 r 2 / 2 ) giving b = 2 / g , n = n o ( 1 - A r 2 / 2 ) giving b = 2 / A .
ϕ = w f tan γ .
γ = sin - 1 ( n sin α ) - α .
tan γ = ( w l / z R ) [ 1 - ( w l / w f ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .

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