Abstract

A special interferometric technique, which uses light of low-coherence length and the Doppler principle, is applied to measurement of the thickness of the human cornea in vivo. The special construction of the instrument eliminates any influence from eye motions on the thickness results. With a superluminescent diode as a light source, a precision of ~ 1.5 μm is obtained. This is ~ 3–8 times better than the precision of existing instruments. Since interobserver and interinstrument variability are avoided by the measurement principle, the improvement in total accuracy, compared with that when existing instruments are used, should be even better.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Ehlers, F. Kruse Hansen, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness,” Acta Ophthalmol. 49, 65–81 (1971).
  2. T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).
  3. C. Edmund, M. La Cour, “Some components affecting the precision of corneal thickness measurement performed by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 499–503 (1986).
  4. A. L. Reader, J. J. Salz, “Differences among ultrasonic pachymeters in measuring corneal thickness,” J. Refract. Surg. 3, 7–11 (1987).
  5. A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Ehlers, T. Bramsen, “Central thickness in corneal disorders,” Acta Ophthalmol. 56, 412–416 (1978).
  7. J. G. Fujimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, A. Oseroff, “Femtosecond optical ranging in biological systems,” Opt. Lett. 11, 150–152 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–188 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  10. A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Juchem, “Measurement of the axial eye length and retinal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. A. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1423, 46–50 (1991).
  12. X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R. P. Salathé, R. P. Novàk, H. H. Gilgen, “High-resolution reflectometry in biological tissues,” Opt. Lett. 17, 4–6 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  16. S. Pancharatnam, “Partial polarization, partial coherence and their spectral description for polychromatic light—part II,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 57, 231–243 (1963).
  17. H. Obstfeld, Optics in Vision (Butterworth, London, 1982), p. 31.
  18. H. Naumann, G. Schröder, Bauelemente der Optik (Hanser, Munich, 1983), p. 50.
  19. American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1986).
  20. Ref. 17, p. 299.
  21. C. Edmund, “Determination of the corneal thickness profile by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 65, 147–152 (1987).
  22. W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, R. A. Moses, W. M. Hart, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1987), p. 436.
  23. Y. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, B. T. Meggitt, A. W. Palmer, “Characteristics of laser diodes for interferometric use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3657–3661 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

1991 (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

A. L. Reader, J. J. Salz, “Differences among ultrasonic pachymeters in measuring corneal thickness,” J. Refract. Surg. 3, 7–11 (1987).

C. Edmund, “Determination of the corneal thickness profile by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 65, 147–152 (1987).

1986 (2)

C. Edmund, M. La Cour, “Some components affecting the precision of corneal thickness measurement performed by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 499–503 (1986).

J. G. Fujimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, A. Oseroff, “Femtosecond optical ranging in biological systems,” Opt. Lett. 11, 150–152 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).

1978 (1)

N. Ehlers, T. Bramsen, “Central thickness in corneal disorders,” Acta Ophthalmol. 56, 412–416 (1978).

1971 (1)

N. Ehlers, F. Kruse Hansen, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness,” Acta Ophthalmol. 49, 65–81 (1971).

1963 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Partial polarization, partial coherence and their spectral description for polychromatic light—part II,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 57, 231–243 (1963).

Boggess, E. A.

A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramsen, T.

N. Ehlers, T. Bramsen, “Central thickness in corneal disorders,” Acta Ophthalmol. 56, 412–416 (1978).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clivaz, X.

De Silvestri, S.

Drexler, W.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

Edmund, C.

C. Edmund, “Determination of the corneal thickness profile by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 65, 147–152 (1987).

C. Edmund, M. La Cour, “Some components affecting the precision of corneal thickness measurement performed by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 499–503 (1986).

Ehlers, N.

T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).

N. Ehlers, T. Bramsen, “Central thickness in corneal disorders,” Acta Ophthalmol. 56, 412–416 (1978).

N. Ehlers, F. Kruse Hansen, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness,” Acta Ophthalmol. 49, 65–81 (1971).

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–188 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Juchem, “Measurement of the axial eye length and retinal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. A. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1423, 46–50 (1991).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gilgen, H. H.

Gordon, A.

A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, W. M.

W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, R. A. Moses, W. M. Hart, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1987), p. 436.

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Juchem, “Measurement of the axial eye length and retinal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. A. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1423, 46–50 (1991).

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Juchem, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Juchem, “Measurement of the axial eye length and retinal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. A. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1423, 46–50 (1991).

Kruse Hansen, F.

N. Ehlers, F. Kruse Hansen, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness,” Acta Ophthalmol. 49, 65–81 (1971).

La Cour, M.

C. Edmund, M. La Cour, “Some components affecting the precision of corneal thickness measurement performed by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 499–503 (1986).

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, R.

Marquis-Weible, F.

Meggitt, B. T.

Mengedoht, K.

Molinari, J. F.

A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumann, H.

H. Naumann, G. Schröder, Bauelemente der Optik (Hanser, Munich, 1983), p. 50.

Nielsen, C. B.

T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).

Ning, Y.

Novàk, R. P.

Obstfeld, H.

H. Obstfeld, Optics in Vision (Butterworth, London, 1982), p. 31.

Olsen, T.

T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).

Oseroff, A.

Palmer, A. W.

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Partial polarization, partial coherence and their spectral description for polychromatic light—part II,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 57, 231–243 (1963).

Puliafito, C. A.

Reader, A. L.

A. L. Reader, J. J. Salz, “Differences among ultrasonic pachymeters in measuring corneal thickness,” J. Refract. Surg. 3, 7–11 (1987).

Salathé, R. P.

Salz, J. J.

A. L. Reader, J. J. Salz, “Differences among ultrasonic pachymeters in measuring corneal thickness,” J. Refract. Surg. 3, 7–11 (1987).

Schröder, G.

H. Naumann, G. Schröder, Bauelemente der Optik (Hanser, Munich, 1983), p. 50.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, W.

Acta Ophthalmol. (5)

N. Ehlers, F. Kruse Hansen, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness,” Acta Ophthalmol. 49, 65–81 (1971).

T. Olsen, C. B. Nielsen, N. Ehlers, “On the optical measurement of corneal thickness II. The measuring conditions and sources of error,” Acta Ophthalmol. 58, 975–984 (1980).

C. Edmund, M. La Cour, “Some components affecting the precision of corneal thickness measurement performed by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 64, 499–503 (1986).

N. Ehlers, T. Bramsen, “Central thickness in corneal disorders,” Acta Ophthalmol. 56, 412–416 (1978).

C. Edmund, “Determination of the corneal thickness profile by optical pachometry,” Acta Ophthalmol. 65, 147–152 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).
[PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

A. L. Reader, J. J. Salz, “Differences among ultrasonic pachymeters in measuring corneal thickness,” J. Refract. Surg. 3, 7–11 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. Gordon, E. A. Boggess, J. F. Molinari, “Variability of ultrasonic pachometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 162–165 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Partial polarization, partial coherence and their spectral description for polychromatic light—part II,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 57, 231–243 (1963).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, R. A. Moses, W. M. Hart, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1987), p. 436.

H. Obstfeld, Optics in Vision (Butterworth, London, 1982), p. 31.

H. Naumann, G. Schröder, Bauelemente der Optik (Hanser, Munich, 1983), p. 50.

American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1986).

Ref. 17, p. 299.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Juchem, “Measurement of the axial eye length and retinal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. A. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1423, 46–50 (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the laser Doppler interferometer. A and P are the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the usual interferometric setup. A and P are the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the illumination and detection unit: 1, 2, edges of the illuminating beam; 1′, 2′, edges of the reflection cone; the area between 1′ and 3′, part of the reflection cone transmitted through the aperture; MP, measurement position; PI, Purkinje image; OC, center of the object plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of the OCT. The intensity of the Doppler signal is plotted versus the interferometer arm length difference d. The three strong peaks at positions d = −1.3, 0, + 1.3 mm are caused by the coherence function of the SLD. The two smaller peaks at a distance OCT ≅ 750 μm from the central peak are caused by the posterior corneal surface.

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