Abstract

Many questions remain concerning the sources of intraocular light scatter. One approach, inversion of the empirical disability glare function, implies that refractive-index fluctuations extend over distances of tens of micrometers. Randomly placed inhomogeneities of these sizes, such as protein aggregates, are ruled out. It is argued that refractive-index fluctuations associated with the lens fiber lattice are capable of contributing significantly to intraocular scatter and that they provide the necessary large spatial extent.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).
  2. R. M. Boynton, F. J. J. Clark, “Sources of entoptic scatter in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 110–119 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Vos, J. Boogaard, “Contribution of the cornea to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 869–873 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Vos, “Contribution of the fundus oculi to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1449–1451 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (State University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (1965).
  6. J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction; the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. P. Hemenger, “Intraocular light scatter in normal vision loss with age,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1972–1974 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. C. Magnante, D. Miller, “Comparison between modulation transfer function and contrast sensitivity measurements on human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1281 (1991).
  11. K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).
  12. J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos,” Vision Res. 10, 595–599 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 449–454.
  14. F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens I. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 85–102.
  17. H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 86–90.
  18. M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971), pp. 645–673.
  19. M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Philipson, “Changes in the lens related to the reduction of transparency,” Exp. Eye Res. 16, 29–39 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. P. Hemenger, “Small-angle intraocular light scatter: a hypothesis concerning its source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 577–582 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 13.
  25. J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos and glare,” Vision Res. 12, 141–143 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. P. Hemenger, “Optical density of the crystalline lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 34–42 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. P. Hemenger, “Light scatter in cataractous lenses,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 10, 394–396 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. C. Magnante, D. Miller, “Comparison between modulation transfer function and contrast sensitivity measurements on human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1281 (1991).

K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).

1990 (2)

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Hemenger, “Light scatter in cataractous lenses,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 10, 394–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

R. P. Hemenger, “Intraocular light scatter in normal vision loss with age,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1972–1974 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

R. P. Hemenger, “Optical density of the crystalline lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 34–42 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens I. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (3)

B. Philipson, “Changes in the lens related to the reduction of transparency,” Exp. Eye Res. 16, 29–39 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction; the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos and glare,” Vision Res. 12, 141–143 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos,” Vision Res. 10, 595–599 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

1963 (2)

1949 (1)

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Alvarado, J. A.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971), pp. 645–673.

Bagg, A.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Benedek, G. B.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Benedek, K.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bettelheim, F. A.

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens I. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boogaard, J.

Boynton, R. M.

Bron, A. J.

J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bueche, A. M.

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Burton, K.

K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).

Clark, F. J. J.

Clark, J. I.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. D.

J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davson, H.

H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 86–90.

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

deWaard, P. W. T.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geri, G. A.

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 13.

Hemenger, R. P.

R. P. Hemenger, “Light scatter in cataractous lenses,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 10, 394–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Hemenger, “Small-angle intraocular light scatter: a hypothesis concerning its source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 577–582 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Hemenger, “Intraocular light scatter in normal vision loss with age,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1972–1974 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Hemenger, “Optical density of the crystalline lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 34–42 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogan, M. J.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971), pp. 645–673.

IJspeert, J. K.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D.

F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 449–454.

Magnante, P. C.

P. C. Magnante, D. Miller, “Comparison between modulation transfer function and contrast sensitivity measurements on human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1281 (1991).

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos and glare,” Vision Res. 12, 141–143 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos,” Vision Res. 10, 595–599 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mengel, L.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

P. C. Magnante, D. Miller, “Comparison between modulation transfer function and contrast sensitivity measurements on human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1281 (1991).

Owsley, C.

K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, D. A.

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos and glare,” Vision Res. 12, 141–143 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos,” Vision Res. 10, 595–599 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunovic, M.

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens I. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipson, B.

B. Philipson, “Changes in the lens related to the reduction of transparency,” Exp. Eye Res. 16, 29–39 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, J. E.

J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanke, T.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sekuler, R.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrallach, E. N.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Siemsen, D.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloane, M.

K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 85–102.

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinciguerra, M. J.

F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

J. J. Vos, J. Boogaard, “Contribution of the cornea to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 869–873 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, “Contribution of the fundus oculi to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1449–1451 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (State University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (1965).

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction; the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weddell, J. E.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971), pp. 645–673.

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, C. Y.

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

R. P. Hemenger, “Optical density of the crystalline lens,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 34–42 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

F. A. Bettelheim, M. Paunovic, “Light scattering of normal human lens I. Application of random density and orientation fluctuation theory,” Biophys. J. 26, 85–99 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Ross, D. D. Clarke, A. J. Bron, “Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular findings,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69, 51–56 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CIE J. (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

Exp. Eye Res. (3)

M. J. Vinciguerra, F. A. Bettelheim, “Packing and orientation of fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 11, 214–219 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Philipson, “Changes in the lens related to the reduction of transparency,” Exp. Eye Res. 16, 29–39 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Bettelheim, M. J. Vinciguerra, D. Kaplan, “Dynamic laser diffraction of bovine lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 149–155 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (2)

P. C. Magnante, D. Miller, “Comparison between modulation transfer function and contrast sensitivity measurements on human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1281 (1991).

K. Burton, C. Owsley, M. Sloane, “Aging and ‘neural’ spatial contrast sensitivity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 32, 1274 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. (1)

R. P. Hemenger, “Light scatter in cataractous lenses,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 10, 394–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A (1)

G. B. Benedek, J. I. Clark, E. N. Serrallach, C. Y. Young, L. Mengel, T. Sanke, A. Bagg, K. Benedek, “Light scattering and reversible cataracts in the calf and human lens,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Sor. A 293, 329–340 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (6)

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos and glare,” Vision Res. 12, 141–143 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, D. A. Palmer, “Entoptic halos,” Vision Res. 10, 595–599 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, G. A. Geri, “Psychophysical determination of intraocular light scatter as a function of wavelength,” Vision Res. 27, 1291–1298 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. deWaard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction; the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739–1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” Ph.D. dissertation (State University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (1965).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 449–454.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 85–102.

H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 86–90.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971), pp. 645–673.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 13.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lens fibers packed into a rhomboidal lattice. Note that the cross section of individual fibers is an elongated hexagon. The direction of incident light is approximately perpendicular to the fiber axes and to the long faces of each fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation function found by inverting the disability glare function Eq. (1) with the exponent m = 3.5. For this case index fluctuations were assumed to be randomly positioned and randomly oriented. The large spatial extent of the correlation function makes such fluctuations implausible as a source of intraocular scatter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated correlation function (dashed curve) restricted to a plane that is perpendicular to the direction of incident light. The correlation function calculated in this way better represents index fluctuations such as those associated with lens fibers that are not entirely randomly oriented. The solid curve is an approximate correlation function for lens fibers that are restricted to a region that is sufficiently small that the fibers are nearly parallel. An analytical expression approximating the lens halo has been incorporated into the calculation. The fact that the oscillations, a consequence of including the lens halo, are so prominent suggests that index fluctuations that are associated with the lens fiber lattice are an important contributor to intraocular scatter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Empirical disability glare function of Vos5 and Walraven6 [Eq. (1)] with parameters A = 29, θ0 = 13°, and m = 2.8. An analytical expression [Eq. (12)] that approximates the lens halo has been included.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ( θ ) = L eq / E = A ( θ 0 + θ ) m ,
η ( r ) = [ n ( r ) - n av ] / n av ,
γ ( r ) = ( V η 2 ¯ ) - 1 d r η ( r + r ) η ( r ) ,
i 0 ( θ , ϕ ) = C d r γ ( r ) exp ( i k r · s ) .
i ( θ ) ~ 0 d r r γ ( r ) sin ( 2 k r sin θ / 2 ) / ( k sin θ / 2 ) .
r γ ( r ) ~ 0 d w · w · i ( 2 sin - 1 w ) sin ( 2 k r w ) .
i 0 ( θ , ϕ ) = C d r γ ( x , y , z ) × exp { i k [ x sin θ cos ϕ + y sin θ sin ϕ + z ( 1 - cos θ ) ] } .
i 0 ( θ , ϕ ) = C 0 d ρ ρ 0 2 π d α γ 1 ( ρ , α ) exp [ i k ρ sin θ cos ( ϕ - α ) ] ,
γ 1 ( ρ , α ) = q - 1 0 d z y ( x , y , z ) .
i ( θ ) = ( 2 π ) - 1 0 2 π d ϕ i 0 ( θ , ϕ ) = C 0 d ρ ρ γ 2 ( ρ ) J 0 ( k ρ sin θ ) ,
γ 2 ( ρ ) = ( 2 π ) - 1 0 2 π d α γ 1 ( ρ , α ) ,
γ 2 ( ρ ) = k 2 / C 0 d u · u · i ( sin - 1 u ) J 0 ( k ρ u ) .
γ fib ( x ) = γ fib ( ρ cos α ) = γ 1 ( ρ , α ) .
γ 2 ( ρ ) = ( 2 / π ) 0 ρ d x γ fib ( x ) / ( ρ 2 - x 2 ) 1 / 2 .
i ( θ ) = 2 C / π k sin θ ) 0 d x γ fib ( x ) cos ( k x sin θ ) .
γ fib ( x ) - k 2 / C 0 d u u i ( sin - 1 u ) cos ( k x u ) .
i 1 ( θ ) = A exp [ - ( θ - θ 1 ) 2 / α , 2 ] ,

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