Abstract

Image shifting provides a method of determining the direction of displacement, and hence the velocity, for all types of pulsed laser velocimeter. It is independent of the scattering properties of the particles and/or the intensity of the illumination of the first image with respect to the second image, and it is capable of high performance. With rotating mirror systems, image shifting can be used to offset negative velocities up to 10 m/s. With electrooptic systems, it is estimated that image shifting can be used at velocities up to 500 m/s.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Barker, M. E. Fourney, “Measuring Fluid Velocities with Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Lett. 1, 135 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Grousson, S. Mallick, “Study of Flow Pattern in a Fluid by Scattered Laser Light,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2334 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “Laser Speckle Photography in a Fluid Medium,” Nature London 270, 45 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “The Development of Scattered Light Speckle Metrology,” Opt. Eng. 21, 396 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Meynart, “Flow Velocity Measurement by a Speckle Method,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 25 (1980).
  6. R. Meynart, “Speckle Velocimetry Study of Vortex Pairing in a Low-Re Unexcited Jet,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2074 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Development of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry for Measurement of Fluid Flow,” in Proceedings, Eighth Biennial Symposium on Turbulence, G. Patterson, J. L. Zakin, Eds. (U. Missouri, Rolla, 1983).
  8. R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Pulsed Laser Technique Application to Liquid and Gaseous Flows and the Scattering Power of Seed Materials,” Appl. Opt. 24, 44 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. J. D. Pickering, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle Image Velocimetry: Improving Fringe Signal-to-Noise Ratio with a Two-Step Photographic Process,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 610 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Adrian, “Multi-Point Optical Measurements of Simultaneous Vectors in Unsteady Flow. A Review,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Adrian, “Scattering Particle Characteristics and Their Effect on Pulsed Laser Measurements of Fluid Flow: Speckle Velocimetry vs Particle Image Velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1690 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, “Digital Imaging Techniques in Experimental Stress Analyses,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. A. Reynolds, M. Short, M. C. Whiffen, “Automated Reduction of Instantaneous Flow Field Images,” Opt. Eng. 24, 475 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Erbeck, “Fast Image Processing with a Minicomputer Applied to Speckle Photography,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3838 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. S. Yao, R. J. Adrian, “Orthogonal Compression and 1-D Analysis Technique for Measurement of 2-D Particle Displacements in Pulsed Laser Velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1687 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Video Recording and Quantitative Analysis of Seed Particle Track Images in Unsteady Flow,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3666 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).
  18. C. C. Landreth, “Measurements of 2-D Complex Flows Using Pulsed Laser Velocimetry with Directional Resolution,” M.S. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, U. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1986).
  19. C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Double Pulsed Laser Velocimeter with Directional Resolution for Complex Flows,” presented at Tenth Symposium on Turbulence, Rolla, MO, 22–24 Sept. 1986. Submitted to Exp. Fluids.

1986 (1)

R. J. Adrian, “Multi-Point Optical Measurements of Simultaneous Vectors in Unsteady Flow. A Review,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (5)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

R. Meynart, “Speckle Velocimetry Study of Vortex Pairing in a Low-Re Unexcited Jet,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2074 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, “Digital Imaging Techniques in Experimental Stress Analyses,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “The Development of Scattered Light Speckle Metrology,” Opt. Eng. 21, 396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Meynart, “Flow Velocity Measurement by a Speckle Method,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 25 (1980).

1977 (3)

Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, “Multi-Point Optical Measurements of Simultaneous Vectors in Unsteady Flow. A Review,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Pulsed Laser Technique Application to Liquid and Gaseous Flows and the Scattering Power of Seed Materials,” Appl. Opt. 24, 44 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Adrian, “Scattering Particle Characteristics and Their Effect on Pulsed Laser Measurements of Fluid Flow: Speckle Velocimetry vs Particle Image Velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1690 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Yao, R. J. Adrian, “Orthogonal Compression and 1-D Analysis Technique for Measurement of 2-D Particle Displacements in Pulsed Laser Velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1687 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Double Pulsed Laser Velocimeter with Directional Resolution for Complex Flows,” presented at Tenth Symposium on Turbulence, Rolla, MO, 22–24 Sept. 1986. Submitted to Exp. Fluids.

R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Development of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry for Measurement of Fluid Flow,” in Proceedings, Eighth Biennial Symposium on Turbulence, G. Patterson, J. L. Zakin, Eds. (U. Missouri, Rolla, 1983).

Barker, D. B.

Dudderar, T. D.

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “The Development of Scattered Light Speckle Metrology,” Opt. Eng. 21, 396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “Laser Speckle Photography in a Fluid Medium,” Nature London 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Erbeck, R.

Fourney, M. E.

Gharib, M.

M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).

Grousson, R.

Halliwell, N. A.

Hernan, M. A.

M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).

Landreth, C. C.

C. C. Landreth, “Measurements of 2-D Complex Flows Using Pulsed Laser Velocimetry with Directional Resolution,” M.S. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, U. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1986).

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Double Pulsed Laser Velocimeter with Directional Resolution for Complex Flows,” presented at Tenth Symposium on Turbulence, Rolla, MO, 22–24 Sept. 1986. Submitted to Exp. Fluids.

Mallick, S.

Marko, K. A.

Meynart, R.

R. Meynart, “Speckle Velocimetry Study of Vortex Pairing in a Low-Re Unexcited Jet,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2074 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Meynart, “Flow Velocity Measurement by a Speckle Method,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 25 (1980).

Peters, W. H.

W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, “Digital Imaging Techniques in Experimental Stress Analyses,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, C. J. D.

Ranson, W. F.

W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, “Digital Imaging Techniques in Experimental Stress Analyses,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, G. A.

G. A. Reynolds, M. Short, M. C. Whiffen, “Automated Reduction of Instantaneous Flow Field Images,” Opt. Eng. 24, 475 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rimai, L.

Sarohia, V.

M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).

Short, M.

G. A. Reynolds, M. Short, M. C. Whiffen, “Automated Reduction of Instantaneous Flow Field Images,” Opt. Eng. 24, 475 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, P. G.

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “The Development of Scattered Light Speckle Metrology,” Opt. Eng. 21, 396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “Laser Speckle Photography in a Fluid Medium,” Nature London 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Whiffen, M. C.

G. A. Reynolds, M. Short, M. C. Whiffen, “Automated Reduction of Instantaneous Flow Field Images,” Opt. Eng. 24, 475 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yao, C. S.

R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Pulsed Laser Technique Application to Liquid and Gaseous Flows and the Scattering Power of Seed Materials,” Appl. Opt. 24, 44 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Yao, R. J. Adrian, “Orthogonal Compression and 1-D Analysis Technique for Measurement of 2-D Particle Displacements in Pulsed Laser Velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1687 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Double Pulsed Laser Velocimeter with Directional Resolution for Complex Flows,” presented at Tenth Symposium on Turbulence, Rolla, MO, 22–24 Sept. 1986. Submitted to Exp. Fluids.

R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Development of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry for Measurement of Fluid Flow,” in Proceedings, Eighth Biennial Symposium on Turbulence, G. Patterson, J. L. Zakin, Eds. (U. Missouri, Rolla, 1983).

Yavrouian, A. H.

M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow (1)

R. J. Adrian, “Multi-Point Optical Measurements of Simultaneous Vectors in Unsteady Flow. A Review,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature London (1)

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “Laser Speckle Photography in a Fluid Medium,” Nature London 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, “The Development of Scattered Light Speckle Metrology,” Opt. Eng. 21, 396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, “Digital Imaging Techniques in Experimental Stress Analyses,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Reynolds, M. Short, M. C. Whiffen, “Automated Reduction of Instantaneous Flow Field Images,” Opt. Eng. 24, 475 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Fluids (1)

R. Meynart, “Speckle Velocimetry Study of Vortex Pairing in a Low-Re Unexcited Jet,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2074 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. Meynart, “Flow Velocity Measurement by a Speckle Method,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 25 (1980).

Other (4)

R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Development of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry for Measurement of Fluid Flow,” in Proceedings, Eighth Biennial Symposium on Turbulence, G. Patterson, J. L. Zakin, Eds. (U. Missouri, Rolla, 1983).

M. Gharib, M. A. Hernan, A. H. Yavrouian, V. Sarohia, “Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers,” AIAA Paper 85-0172 (1985).

C. C. Landreth, “Measurements of 2-D Complex Flows Using Pulsed Laser Velocimetry with Directional Resolution,” M.S. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, U. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1986).

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, “Double Pulsed Laser Velocimeter with Directional Resolution for Complex Flows,” presented at Tenth Symposium on Turbulence, Rolla, MO, 22–24 Sept. 1986. Submitted to Exp. Fluids.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographic recording modes in double-pulsed laser velocimetry: (a) low source density produces images of individual particles, and low image density yields isolated image pairs; (b) low source density and high image density yields many pairs of images per interrogation spot; (c) high source density produces speckles. The displacement in the image plane is ΔX.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Techniques for determining the direction of the displacement between exposures on a single frame: (a) differential intensity; (b) two-color; (c) multipulse coded sequence; and (d) flourescent/phosphorescent tails.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image shifting technique: (a) probable displacements observed at one point in the field of view; (b) domain of probable displacements for all points in the field of view. All second images lie with the crosshatched region. (c) Domain of probable displacements after shifting all second images by Xs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Selection of the shift displacement for various flows: (a) unidirectional laminar flow; (b) low intensity grid turbulence; and (c) high intensity turbulent flow with recirculation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Velocity vector field of a 36-mm diam submerged water jet measured using image shifting.

Equations (6)

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Δ X = X ( t + Δ t ) - X ( t )
= M Δ x
M u Δ t ,
Δ X τ = X s + M Δ x .
u = Δ X τ - X s M Δ t .
X s = 2 M ω m ( s 0 - s m ) Δ t ,

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