Abstract

Resonant extinction is shown to have a small but significant effect on lidar returns from upper atmospheric sodium. An equation to correct for it is developed, and the magnitude of the correction for broadband and monochromatic lasers is discussed.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Sandford, A. J. Gibson, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1423 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).
  3. V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, B. R. Clemesha, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 35, 1493 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 1675 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Measures, Appl. Opt. 16, 1092 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Megie, J. E. Blamont, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 1093 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Cerny, C. F. Sechrist, Aeronomy Report 94, U. Illinois, Urbana (1980).
  10. G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).
  12. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

1979 (1)

D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. Megie, J. E. Blamont, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 1093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Measures, Appl. Opt. 16, 1092 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, B. R. Clemesha, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 35, 1493 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).

1971 (1)

A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 1675 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

M. C. Sandford, A. J. Gibson, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1423 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Blamont, J. E.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. E. Blamont, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 1093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).

Bos, F.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cerny, T.

T. Cerny, C. F. Sechrist, Aeronomy Report 94, U. Illinois, Urbana (1980).

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

Chanin, M. L.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).

Clemesha, B. R.

D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, B. R. Clemesha, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 35, 1493 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A. J.

A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 1675 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Sandford, A. J. Gibson, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1423 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kirchoff, V. W. J. H.

D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, B. R. Clemesha, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 35, 1493 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

Megie, G.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. E. Blamont, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 1093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).

Sandford, M. C.

M. C. Sandford, A. J. Gibson, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1423 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sandford, M. C. W.

A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 1675 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sechrist, C. F.

T. Cerny, C. F. Sechrist, Aeronomy Report 94, U. Illinois, Urbana (1980).

Simonich, D. M.

D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wright, R. W.

G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, Ann. Geophys. 28, 833 (1972).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (4)

G. S. Kent, B. R. Clemesha, R. W. Wright, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 169 (1967).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, B. R. Clemesha, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 35, 1493 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Sandford, A. J. Gibson, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1423 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 1675 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. M. Simonich, B. R. Clemesha, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1543 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, M. L. Chanin, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. E. Blamont, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 1093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Cerny, C. F. Sechrist, Aeronomy Report 94, U. Illinois, Urbana (1980).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average sodium density profile measured at Sao Jose dos Campos on the night of 13 July 1978 (dashed line) showing the effect of correction for resonant extinction for a wideband laser (solid line) and the profile which would have been measured by a monochromatic laser (dotted line).

Equations (17)

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ϕ ( λ, z ) = ϕ ( λ, z 0 ) exp [ z 0 z ϕ ( λ, z ) ρ ( z ) d z ] ,
d n s ( λ , z ) = T 4 π ρ ( z ) L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) exp [ σ ( λ ) z 0 z ρ ( z ) d z ] d z ,
d n 0 ( λ , z ) = T 4 π ρ ( z ) L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) exp [ 2 σ ( λ ) z 0 z ρ ( z ) d z ] d z .
d n r ( λ , z ) = A r T 2 η 4 π z 2 ρ ( z ) L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) × exp [ 2 σ ( λ ) z 0 z ρ ( z ) d z ] d z ,
N r ( λ , z j ) = z j Δ z / 2 z j + Δ z / 2 d n r ( λ , z ) .
z j Δ z / 2 z j + Δ z / 2 z 2 ρ ( z ) d z z j 2 ρ ¯ ( z j ) Δ z .
N r ( z j ) = A r T 2 η 4 π z j 2 ρ ¯ ( z j ) Δ z 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) exp [ 2 a j σ ( λ ) ] d λ ,
a j = z 0 z j ρ ( z ) d z
N r ( z j ) = A r T 2 η 4 π z j 2 ρ ¯ ( z j ) Δ z × 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) [ 1 2 a j σ ( λ ) + 2 a j σ 2 ( λ ) ] d λ .
σ eff = N t 1 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) d λ ,
N t = 0 L 0 ( λ ) d λ
N r ( z j ) = N t A r T 2 η ρ ¯ ( z j ) σ eff Δ z 4 π j 2 [ 1 2 a j 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ 2 ( λ ) d λ 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) d λ + 2 a j 2 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ 3 ( λ ) d λ 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) d λ ] .
a j = [ ρ ¯ ( z j ) / 2 + k = 0 j 1 ρ ¯ c ( z k ) ] Δ z ,
C j = 1 2 a j 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ 2 ( λ ) d λ 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) d λ + 2 a j 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ 3 ( λ ) d λ 0 L 0 ( λ ) σ ( λ ) d λ ,
C j = 1 1.88 × 10 15 a j + 1.77 × 10 30 a j 2 .
σ ( λ ) = N a exp [ ( λ λ a ) 2 / β 2 ] N b exp [ ( λ λ b ) 2 / β 2 ] ,
C j = 1 1.16 × 10 15 a j + 8.36 × 10 31 a j 2

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