Abstract

Inverted population densities are measured in a laser-produced carbon plasma and interpreted in terms of absolute gain coefficients in the 1%/cm range for potential amplification in the XUV at 52-nm wavelength. Scaling to higher gain through increased ionization at higher pumping intensities is attempted, and a factor of 2 enhancement is indicated.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Waynant, R. C. Elton, Proc. IEEE 64, 1059 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. For thermal Doppler broadening. Doppler spreading due to plasma streaming is not included here. Such additional broadening is not expected to exist in true elongated laser media [see, for example, J. F. Reintjes, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Opt. Lett. 3, 40 (1978) and G. V. Peregudov, M. E. Plotkin, E. N. Ragozin, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1224 (1979)].
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” NSRDS-NBS-4, Vol. 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966).
  4. F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 1109 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072 (1977); also R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122 (1978); also R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, J. F. Seely, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Vol. 5, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, B. Yaakobi, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 135.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. Elton, Opt. Eng. 21, 307 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Elton, J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277 (1982).
  8. R. C. Elton, Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1983) (in press).
  9. R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics-1982, B. Crasemann, Ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 481 (1982).
  10. R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 305 (1982).
  11. P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, Phys. Rev. A 26, 484 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 2084 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).
  15. M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 8, 2427 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (2)

R. C. Elton, Opt. Eng. 21, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, Phys. Rev. A 26, 484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072 (1977); also R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122 (1978); also R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, J. F. Seely, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Vol. 5, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, B. Yaakobi, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 135.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. W. Waynant, R. C. Elton, Proc. IEEE 64, 1059 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 8, 2427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 2084 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 1109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Boland, B. C.

B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R. H.

J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
[CrossRef]

For thermal Doppler broadening. Doppler spreading due to plasma streaming is not included here. Such additional broadening is not expected to exist in true elongated laser media [see, for example, J. F. Reintjes, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Opt. Lett. 3, 40 (1978) and G. V. Peregudov, M. E. Plotkin, E. N. Ragozin, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1224 (1979)].
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072 (1977); also R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122 (1978); also R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, J. F. Seely, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Vol. 5, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, B. Yaakobi, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 135.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277 (1982).

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics-1982, B. Crasemann, Ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 481 (1982).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 305 (1982).

Elton, R. C.

R. C. Elton, Opt. Eng. 21, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
[CrossRef]

For thermal Doppler broadening. Doppler spreading due to plasma streaming is not included here. Such additional broadening is not expected to exist in true elongated laser media [see, for example, J. F. Reintjes, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Opt. Lett. 3, 40 (1978) and G. V. Peregudov, M. E. Plotkin, E. N. Ragozin, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1224 (1979)].
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072 (1977); also R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122 (1978); also R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, J. F. Seely, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Vol. 5, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, B. Yaakobi, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 135.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Waynant, R. C. Elton, Proc. IEEE 64, 1059 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277 (1982).

R. C. Elton, Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1983) (in press).

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics-1982, B. Crasemann, Ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 481 (1982).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 305 (1982).

Galanti, M.

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 8, 2427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).

Garifo, L.

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Glennon, B. M.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” NSRDS-NBS-4, Vol. 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966).

Griem, H. R.

P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, Phys. Rev. A 26, 484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Irons, F. E.

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 2084 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 1109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jannitti, E.

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kepple, P. C.

P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, Phys. Rev. A 26, 484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Malvezzi, A. M.

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McWhirter, R. W. P.

B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. A.

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).

Peacock, N. J.

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 8, 2427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 2084 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 1109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).

Puric, J.

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).

Reintjes, J. F.

Seely, J. F.

J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics-1982, B. Crasemann, Ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 481 (1982).

R. C. Elton, J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277 (1982).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 305 (1982).

Smith, M. W.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” NSRDS-NBS-4, Vol. 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966).

Tondello, G.

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant, R. C. Elton, Proc. IEEE 64, 1059 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” NSRDS-NBS-4, Vol. 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966).

J. Phys. B (5)

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 1109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Boland, F. E. Irons, R. W. P. McWhirter, J. Phys. B 1, 1180 (1968).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 7, 2084 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, J. Phys. B 8, 2427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, G. Tondello, J. Phys. B 12, 1437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. C. Elton, Opt. Eng. 21, 307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1437 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, Phys. Rev. A 26, 484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072 (1977); also R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122 (1978); also R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, J. F. Seely, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Vol. 5, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, B. Yaakobi, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 135.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. W. Waynant, R. C. Elton, Proc. IEEE 64, 1059 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Galanti, N. J. Peacock, B. A. Norton, J. Puric, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Tokyo (IAEA Report, Vienna, 1975).

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” NSRDS-NBS-4, Vol. 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966).

R. C. Elton, J. F. Seely, R. H. Dixon, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277 (1982).

R. C. Elton, Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1983) (in press).

R. C. Elton, R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics-1982, B. Crasemann, Ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 481 (1982).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, R. C. Elton, in Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, T. J. McIlrath, R. R. Freeman, Eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 305 (1982).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment schematic: a, Nd:glass laser pulse; b, graphite disk target; c, grazing incidence spectrograph; d, near UV-to-visible spectrometer; e, calibrated deuterium lamp.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Convolved Stark profile and (b) observed profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Densities and temperature (dashed) at 3 mm from the target.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature as related to electron density through points from Refs. 1216 as labeled ae, respectively. An approximate distance of 1 mm in expansion toward lower parameters is indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) 343-nm line emission and (b) background emission at 3 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

343-nm emission at irradiation intensities of (a) 0.34, (b) 0.63, (c) 1.5, (d) 2.9, and (e) 5.7 × 1012 W/cm2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters and Gain at 4.1 × 1011-W/cm2 Pump Intensity

Tables Icon

Table II Parameters and Scaled Gain at 1.5 × 1012-W/cm2 Pump Intensity

Equations (1)

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G = N 4 σ ind N 3 σ abs = π 2 r 0 c f ( g 3 / g 4 ) λ 2 ( M 2 π k T ) 1 / 2 N 4 I ,

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