Abstract

An ion polishing technique employing a planarizing film in conjunction with ion-beam erosion at the planarizing angle was used to remove surface irregularities associated with conventional polishing of optical surfaces. By maintaining a planar surface throughout the erosion process, nonuniform erosion resulting from faceting, redeposition, and ion reflection is eliminated. Smooth surfaces on fused quartz are obtained by erosion of a planarizing film of photoresist at an angle of 60°. The method is applicable to a wide variety of materials and may be useful for removing the surface roughness limitation on the laser-induced damage threshold of optical surfaces.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
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  18. L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, J. V. Dalton, to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.Apr.–Jun.1983.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Nishimura, H. Aritome, S. Namba, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1337 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

L. D. Bollinger, Solid State Technol. 20, 66 (1977).

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, Appl. Opt. 16, 1486 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. Somekh, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1003 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

J. P. Ducommun, M. Cantagrel, M. Marchal, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 725 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

A. M. Karger, Appl. Opt. 12, 451 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

A. D. Pearson, W. B. Harsell, Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 567 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bayly, J. Mater. Sci. 7, 404 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giuliano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 39 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (3)

E. G. Spencer, P. H. Schmidt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S52 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, M. J. Nobes, J. Mater. Sci. 6, 115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Schroeder, H. D. Dieselman, J. W. Douglass, Appl. Opt. 10, 295 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. R. Bayly, P. D. Townsend, Opt. Laser Technol. 2, 117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

P. D. Davidse, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 100 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. D. G. Stewart, M. W. Thompson, J. Mater. Sci. 4, 56 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

1961 (1)

N. Laegreid, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 365 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aritome, H.

T. Nishimura, H. Aritome, S. Namba, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1337 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barber, D. J.

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bashkin, S.

Bayly, A. R.

A. R. Bayly, J. Mater. Sci. 7, 404 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bayly, P. D. Townsend, Opt. Laser Technol. 2, 117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bettis, J. R.

Bollinger, L. D.

L. D. Bollinger, Solid State Technol. 20, 66 (1977).

Cantagrel, M.

J. P. Ducommun, M. Cantagrel, M. Marchal, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 725 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, M. J. Nobes, J. Mater. Sci. 6, 115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Choyke, W. J.

Colligon, J. S.

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, M. J. Nobes, J. Mater. Sci. 6, 115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, J. V.

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, J. V. Dalton, to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.Apr.–Jun.1983.

Davidse, P. D.

P. D. Davidse, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 100 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dieselman, H. D.

Douglass, J. W.

Ducommun, J. P.

J. P. Ducommun, M. Cantagrel, M. Marchal, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 725 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Frank, F. C.

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Giuliano, C. R.

C. R. Giuliano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 39 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

Harsell, W. B.

A. D. Pearson, W. B. Harsell, Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 567 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R. A.

House, R. A.

Ingersoll, K. A.

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, J. V. Dalton, to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.Apr.–Jun.1983.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, J. V. Dalton, to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.Apr.–Jun.1983.

Kahng, D.

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A. M.

Laegreid, N.

N. Laegreid, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 365 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W. J.

Loomis, D. A.

Marchal, M.

J. P. Ducommun, M. Cantagrel, M. Marchal, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 725 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mattox, D. M.

D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, A. B.

Moss, M.

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

T. Nishimura, H. Aritome, S. Namba, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1337 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Narodny, L. H.

Nishimura, T.

T. Nishimura, H. Aritome, S. Namba, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1337 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nobes, M. J.

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, M. J. Nobes, J. Mater. Sci. 6, 115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Panitz, J. K. G.

D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A. D.

A. D. Pearson, W. B. Harsell, Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 567 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. H.

E. G. Spencer, P. H. Schmidt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S52 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J. B.

Sharp, D. J.

D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, S.

S. Somekh, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1003 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, E. G.

E. G. Spencer, P. H. Schmidt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S52 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Steeds, J. W.

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. D. G.

A. D. G. Stewart, M. W. Thompson, J. Mater. Sci. 4, 56 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tarasevich, M.

Thompson, M. W.

A. D. G. Stewart, M. W. Thompson, J. Mater. Sci. 4, 56 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

A. R. Bayly, P. D. Townsend, Opt. Laser Technol. 2, 117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tsong, I. S. T.

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, G. K.

N. Laegreid, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 365 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. R. Giuliano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 39 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, D. Kahng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 636 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Nishimura, H. Aritome, S. Namba, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1337 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Laegreid, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 365 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. D. Davidse, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 100 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (5)

A. D. G. Stewart, M. W. Thompson, J. Mater. Sci. 4, 56 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, M. J. Nobes, J. Mater. Sci. 6, 115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Barber, F. C. Frank, M. Moss, J. W. Steeds, I. S. T. Tsong, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1030 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ducommun, M. Cantagrel, M. Marchal, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 725 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bayly, J. Mater. Sci. 7, 404 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (3)

E. G. Spencer, P. H. Schmidt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S52 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Somekh, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1003 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sharp, J. K. G. Panitz, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1879 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

A. D. Pearson, W. B. Harsell, Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 567 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. R. Bayly, P. D. Townsend, Opt. Laser Technol. 2, 117 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Technol. (1)

L. D. Bollinger, Solid State Technol. 20, 66 (1977).

Other (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, J. V. Dalton, to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.Apr.–Jun.1983.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the ion polishing technique, (a) The rough surface of substrate S is covered by a planarizing film F. d is the maximum amplitude of surface roughness. (b) Removal of the planarizing film by erosion at the planarizing angle θp leaves a smooth substrate surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrograph of the surface of a Suprasil fused quartz window with scratches produced by 1-μm particle-size diamond paste. The scratches shown in the top portion of the micrograph have been removed from the lower portion by ion-beam erosion with the aid of a planarizing film. The dark vertical bands are camera artifacts. Magnification 5400×.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM micrograph showing the removal of scratches produced by 6-μm particle-size diamond paste. Magnification 3000×.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fused quartz window with scratches produced by 6-μm particle-size polishing compound. Magnification 3000×. (b) Scratch-free but pitted surface after erosion with planarizing film. Magnification 3000×. (c) Pits at higher magnification (10,000×).

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