Abstract

A method is presented that permits a vast increase in the capability of projection moire topography. It involves simultaneous translation of the reference and object gratings to generate high-definition contour fringes without any of the artifacts associated with ordinary moire. Experimental results are presented for single- and double-projection arrangements for a general 3-D object and an inclined-plane test surface. Clear contouring fringes for angles of inclination up to 80° are shown, and fringe densities higher than the grating frequency are obtained. Coupled with the flexibility of projection moire, this technique is shown to be particularly suited for computer-assisted moire fringe pattern analysis. Means of practical implementation in on-line processing system are proposed.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Takasaki, Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 3 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. P. Chiang, in Manual of Experimental Stress Analysis SESA 1979, Chap. 6, Moire Methods of Strain Analysis.
  3. J. R. Varner, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 5, Holographic and Moire Surface Contouring.
  4. M. E. Fourney, M. Nakagaki, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 16, Optical Contouring Techniques.
  5. T. Ikeda, H. Terada, Opt. Laser Tech. 13, 302Dec. (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Meadows, W. M. Johnson, J. B. Allen, Appl. Opt. 9, 942 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Takasaki, Appl. Opt. 9, 1467 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Allen, D. M. Meadows, Appl. Opt. 10, 210 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Wasowski, Opt. Commun. 2, 321 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Der Hovanesian, Y. Y. Hung, Appl. Opt. 10, 2734 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).
  12. B. Dessus, M. Lablanc, Opto-electronics 5, 369 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. A. Miles, B. S. Speight, J. Phys. 8, 773 (1975).
  15. P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Yoshino, M. Tsukiji, H. Takasaki, Appl. Opt. 15, 2414 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. P. Khetan, Ph.D. Thesis, SUNY, Stony Brook (1975).
  18. R. P. Khetan, F. P. Chiang, in Proceedings, Fifteenth Mid-Western Mechanics Conference, Chicago (Mar.1977).
  19. L. Pirodda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 318 (1977).
  20. M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, T. Soma, Appl. Opt. 16, 2152 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) 71, 57 (1977).
  22. L. Pirodda, Opt. Eng. 21, 640 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. C. Perrin, A. Thomas, Appl. Opt. 18, 563 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  24. R. S. Krishnamurthy, M.S. Thesis, Carleton U., Ottawa, Canada (1978).
  25. R. S. Krishnamurthy, R. Bell, J. Kirkhope, in Proceedings, Seventh Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, Sherbrooke, Canada, 327 (1979).
  26. H. Kugel, F. Lanzl, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.
  27. G. Windischbauer, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.
  28. G. Windischbauer, in Moire Fringe Topography and Spinal Deformity, M. S. Moreland et al., Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1981).
  29. M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, in Proceedings, Fifth International Congress on Pattern Recognition (Dec.1980), p. 1085.
  30. W. R. J. Funnell, Appl. Opt. 20, 3245 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. The term spurious moire used in this paper refers to the moire of interference between the fine fringes in the regions of large slope and the coarse projected grating on the object as seen at the image plane. On the other hand, the term secondary moire is used for the interference of the reference grating and the fine projected grating lines with imaged frequency of nearly two or more times the frequency of the reference grating, also at the image plane.

1982 (2)

H. Takasaki, Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Pirodda, Opt. Eng. 21, 640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

W. R. J. Funnell, Appl. Opt. 20, 3245 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, H. Terada, Opt. Laser Tech. 13, 302Dec. (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (3)

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, T. Soma, Appl. Opt. 16, 2152 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pirodda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 318 (1977).

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) 71, 57 (1977).

1976 (1)

1975 (3)

B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Miles, B. S. Speight, J. Phys. 8, 773 (1975).

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. Dessus, M. Lablanc, Opto-electronics 5, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).

1971 (2)

1970 (3)

Allen, J. B.

Bell, R.

R. S. Krishnamurthy, R. Bell, J. Kirkhope, in Proceedings, Seventh Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, Sherbrooke, Canada, 327 (1979).

Benoit, P.

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F. P.

F. P. Chiang, in Manual of Experimental Stress Analysis SESA 1979, Chap. 6, Moire Methods of Strain Analysis.

R. P. Khetan, F. P. Chiang, in Proceedings, Fifteenth Mid-Western Mechanics Conference, Chicago (Mar.1977).

Der Hovanesian, J.

J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).

J. Der Hovanesian, Y. Y. Hung, Appl. Opt. 10, 2734 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dessus, B.

B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. Dessus, M. Lablanc, Opto-electronics 5, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fourney, M. E.

M. E. Fourney, M. Nakagaki, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 16, Optical Contouring Techniques.

Funnell, W. R. J.

Gerardin, J. P.

B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, R. E.

J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).

Hormiere, J.

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. Y.

Idesawa, M.

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) 71, 57 (1977).

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, T. Soma, Appl. Opt. 16, 2152 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, in Proceedings, Fifth International Congress on Pattern Recognition (Dec.1980), p. 1085.

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, H. Terada, Opt. Laser Tech. 13, 302Dec. (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. M.

Khetan, R. P.

R. P. Khetan, F. P. Chiang, in Proceedings, Fifteenth Mid-Western Mechanics Conference, Chicago (Mar.1977).

R. P. Khetan, Ph.D. Thesis, SUNY, Stony Brook (1975).

Kirkhope, J.

R. S. Krishnamurthy, R. Bell, J. Kirkhope, in Proceedings, Seventh Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, Sherbrooke, Canada, 327 (1979).

Krishnamurthy, R. S.

R. S. Krishnamurthy, M.S. Thesis, Carleton U., Ottawa, Canada (1978).

R. S. Krishnamurthy, R. Bell, J. Kirkhope, in Proceedings, Seventh Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, Sherbrooke, Canada, 327 (1979).

Kugel, H.

H. Kugel, F. Lanzl, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.

Lablanc, M.

B. Dessus, M. Lablanc, Opto-electronics 5, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lanzl, F.

H. Kugel, F. Lanzl, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.

Mathieu, E.

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Meadows, D. M.

Miles, C. A.

C. A. Miles, B. S. Speight, J. Phys. 8, 773 (1975).

Mousselet, P.

B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakagaki, M.

M. E. Fourney, M. Nakagaki, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 16, Optical Contouring Techniques.

Perrin, J. C.

Pirodda, L.

L. Pirodda, Opt. Eng. 21, 640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Pirodda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 318 (1977).

Powell, R. L.

J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).

Soma, T.

Speight, B. S.

C. A. Miles, B. S. Speight, J. Phys. 8, 773 (1975).

Takasaki, H.

Terada, H.

T. Ikeda, H. Terada, Opt. Laser Tech. 13, 302Dec. (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, A.

J. C. Perrin, A. Thomas, Appl. Opt. 18, 563 (1979).
[PubMed]

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tsukiji, M.

Varner, J. R.

J. R. Varner, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 5, Holographic and Moire Surface Contouring.

Wasowski, J.

J. Wasowski, Opt. Commun. 2, 321 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Windischbauer, G.

G. Windischbauer, in Moire Fringe Topography and Spinal Deformity, M. S. Moreland et al., Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1981).

G. Windischbauer, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.

Yatagai, T.

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, T. Soma, Appl. Opt. 16, 2152 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) 71, 57 (1977).

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, in Proceedings, Fifth International Congress on Pattern Recognition (Dec.1980), p. 1085.

Yoshino, Y.

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Phys. (1)

C. A. Miles, B. S. Speight, J. Phys. 8, 773 (1975).

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

P. Benoit, E. Mathieu, J. Hormiere, A. Thomas, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 6, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Wasowski, Opt. Commun. 2, 321 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Pirodda, Opt. Eng. 21, 640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Tech. (1)

T. Ikeda, H. Terada, Opt. Laser Tech. 13, 302Dec. (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

H. Takasaki, Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Dessus, J. P. Gerardin, P. Mousselet, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opto-electronics (1)

B. Dessus, M. Lablanc, Opto-electronics 5, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

J. Der Hovanesian, R. E. Haskell, R. L. Powell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.377 (1972).

L. Pirodda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 318 (1977).

Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) (1)

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Jpn.) 71, 57 (1977).

Other (12)

R. S. Krishnamurthy, M.S. Thesis, Carleton U., Ottawa, Canada (1978).

R. S. Krishnamurthy, R. Bell, J. Kirkhope, in Proceedings, Seventh Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, Sherbrooke, Canada, 327 (1979).

H. Kugel, F. Lanzl, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.

G. Windischbauer, in Holography in Medicine and Biology, G. von Bally, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), pp. 60–65.

G. Windischbauer, in Moire Fringe Topography and Spinal Deformity, M. S. Moreland et al., Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1981).

M. Idesawa, T. Yatagai, in Proceedings, Fifth International Congress on Pattern Recognition (Dec.1980), p. 1085.

The term spurious moire used in this paper refers to the moire of interference between the fine fringes in the regions of large slope and the coarse projected grating on the object as seen at the image plane. On the other hand, the term secondary moire is used for the interference of the reference grating and the fine projected grating lines with imaged frequency of nearly two or more times the frequency of the reference grating, also at the image plane.

R. P. Khetan, Ph.D. Thesis, SUNY, Stony Brook (1975).

R. P. Khetan, F. P. Chiang, in Proceedings, Fifteenth Mid-Western Mechanics Conference, Chicago (Mar.1977).

F. P. Chiang, in Manual of Experimental Stress Analysis SESA 1979, Chap. 6, Moire Methods of Strain Analysis.

J. R. Varner, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 5, Holographic and Moire Surface Contouring.

M. E. Fourney, M. Nakagaki, in Holographic Non-Destructive Testing, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 16, Optical Contouring Techniques.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the single-projection arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results from the single-projection arrangement: (a) moving-grating fringes; (b) stationary-grating fringes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the double-projection arrangement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results from the double-projection arrangement: (a) moving-grating fringe pattern; (b) stationary-grating fringe pattern.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Projection moire fringes for the inclined plane: (a) moving-grating fringes; (b) stationary-grating fringes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Isodensity traces for typical fringe patterns: (a) from moving gratings; (b) from stationary gratings.

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