Abstract

Light deflection is accomplished by diffraction from a transient index modulation established as a grating of variable frequency in an optical material by the interference of two controlling light beams. This device may be considered an opto-optical analog to an acoustooptical deflector, in that a change in angular deflection is created by altering the frequency of the diffraction grating. In this paper we report on a technique for altering the grating frequency by changing the wavelength of the control beams and the use of a novel optical system to maintain the Bragg condition over a wide range of frequencies. Configurations exhibiting very large angular deflections have been designed using a computer simulation and optimization program that allows minimization of the Bragg detuning. This new method of light deflection allows either discrete or continuous light scanning or modulation. A particular example using lithium niobate will be discussed which produces an 11.8° deflection from a 0.027-μm wavelength change and with an angular detuning of less than ±0.03°. The use of other materials, inorganic, organic, and dispersive, will also be discussed.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Pieuchard, J. Flamand, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 14-1 (1975).
  2. L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 167 (1978); A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978); C. R. Giuliano, Phys. Today, 27 (Apr.1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Telle, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 572 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Osterwalder, B. J. Rickett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 250 (1980); B. Pokrowsky, G. C. Bjorklund, IBM San Jose Research; private communication.
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  9. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, G. Rivet, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 5, 102 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 15, 519 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Silberberg, I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, Laser Focus, 59 (Feb.1982).

1982 (2)

L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, Laser Focus, 59 (Feb.1982).

1981 (1)

Y. Silberberg, I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, G. Rivet, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 5, 102 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 15, 519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Osterwalder, B. J. Rickett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 250 (1980); B. Pokrowsky, G. C. Bjorklund, IBM San Jose Research; private communication.
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 167 (1978); A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978); C. R. Giuliano, Phys. Today, 27 (Apr.1981).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Pieuchard, J. Flamand, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 14-1 (1975).

1971 (1)

R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Aldrich, R. E.

R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

Y. Silberberg, I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, L. D.

L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 15, 519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, J.

G. Pieuchard, J. Flamand, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 14-1 (1975).

Garito, A. F.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, Laser Focus, 59 (Feb.1982).

Günter, P.

Hartman, N. F.

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Harvill, M. L.

R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 15, 519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 167 (1978); A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978); C. R. Giuliano, Phys. Today, 27 (Apr.1981).
[CrossRef]

Herriau, J. P.

Hou, S. L.

R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 167 (1978); A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978); C. R. Giuliano, Phys. Today, 27 (Apr.1981).
[CrossRef]

Kenan, R. P.

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Osterwalder, J. M.

J. M. Osterwalder, B. J. Rickett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 250 (1980); B. Pokrowsky, G. C. Bjorklund, IBM San Jose Research; private communication.
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pieuchard, G.

G. Pieuchard, J. Flamand, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 14-1 (1975).

Rickett, B. J.

J. M. Osterwalder, B. J. Rickett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 250 (1980); B. Pokrowsky, G. C. Bjorklund, IBM San Jose Research; private communication.
[CrossRef]

Rivet, G.

Siegman, A. E.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, Laser Focus, 59 (Feb.1982).

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

J. M. Telle, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

J. M. Telle, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Vahey, D. W.

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Verber, C. M.

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wolfheimer, A. D.

L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, V. E.

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 167 (1978); A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978); C. R. Giuliano, Phys. Today, 27 (Apr.1981).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. D. Dickson, G. T. Sincerbox, A. D. Wolfheimer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Osterwalder, B. J. Rickett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 250 (1980); B. Pokrowsky, G. C. Bjorklund, IBM San Jose Research; private communication.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. E. Aldrich, S. L. Hou, M. L. Harvill, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Pieuchard, J. Flamand, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 14-1 (1975).

Laser Focus (1)

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, Laser Focus, 59 (Feb.1982).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Silberberg, I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. P. Kenan, D. W. Vahey, N. F. Hartman, V. E. Wood, C. M. Verber, Opt. Eng. 15, 12 (1976); W. S. Goruk, P. J. Vella, R. Normandin, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Opt. 20, 4024 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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