Abstract

A new multiwavelength sun-photometer has been developed to obtain accurate measurements of the atmospheric attenuation of direct solar radiation at seven window wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The instrument’s optical features and performance are described. The photometer was calibrated by following a careful procedure based on the Langley method. An additional eighth bandpass filter was used to obtain measurements of the precipitable water. Five examples of this instrument have been constructed and calibrated for a network of mountain stations in Southern Italy to monitor Sahara dust transport episodes.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. E. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 11, 156 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 12, 130 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. M. Irvine, F. W. Peterson, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 62 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. E. Volz, L. Sheehan, Appl. Opt. 10, 363 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Elterman, Appl. Opt. 9, 1804 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Griggs, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 22, 356 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Box, S. Y. Lo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1068 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. N. Carlson, R. S. Caverly, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3141 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. N. Carlson, J. M. Prospero, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Prospero, T. N. Carlson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5255 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. H. Yaalon, D. Ginzbourg, Sedimentology 6, 315 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. H. Yaalon, E. Ganor, “East Mediterranean Trajectories of Dust-Carrying Storms from the Sahara and Sinai,” in Scope 14, Saharan Dust, C. Morales, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 187–210.
  17. F. Prodi, G. Fea, “Transport and Deposition of Sahara Dust over Alps,” in 15 Internationale Tagung für Alpine Meteorologie, Grindelwald19–23 Sept.1978. Tagungsbericht 1. Teil (1978), pp. 179–182.
  18. F. Prodi, G. Fea, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).
  20. G. E. Shaw, Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Deirmendjian, “Use of Scattering Techniques in Cloud Microphysics Research I. The Aureole Method,” U.S.A.F. Project RAND report R-590-PR (1970).
  22. B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. L. Coulson, Solar and Terrestrial Radiation (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 235.
  24. K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 870.
  25. R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5791 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Fröhlich, G. E. Shaw, Appl. Opt. 19, 1773 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I. Theoretical Basis (Clarendon, Oxford, 1964), p. 125.
  29. W. M. Elsasser, M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monogr. 4, No. 23, 1 (1960).
  30. D. M. Gates, W. J. Harrop, Appl. Opt. 2, 887 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. B. Foster, D. T. Volz, L. W. Foskett, “A Spectral Hygrometer for Measuring Total Precipitable Water,” in Humidity and Moisture, Vol. 1, (Reinhold, New York, 1965), p. 455.
  32. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 13, 1732 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. Tomasi, R. Guzzi, J. Phys. E 7, 647 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B (1976),” AFGL Environmental Research Paper 587, AFGL-TR-76-0258 (AFGL, Bedford, Mass., 1976).
  35. D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1196 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1058 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).
  39. C. H. Reitan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 2, 776 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorpl. 16, 237 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1982

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1058 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

F. Prodi, G. Fea, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).

1977

T. N. Carlson, R. S. Caverly, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorpl. 16, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, S. Y. Lo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1068 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 13, 1732 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tomasi, R. Guzzi, J. Phys. E 7, 647 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

M. Griggs, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 22, 356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlson, J. M. Prospero, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero, T. N. Carlson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5255 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, L. Sheehan, Appl. Opt. 10, 363 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

L. Elterman, Appl. Opt. 9, 1804 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Irvine, F. W. Peterson, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 62 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. H. Yaalon, D. Ginzbourg, Sedimentology 6, 315 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963

D. M. Gates, W. J. Harrop, Appl. Opt. 2, 887 (1963).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Reitan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 2, 776 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1960

W. M. Elsasser, M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monogr. 4, No. 23, 1 (1960).

1959

F. E. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1930

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 12, 130 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1929

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 11, 156 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 12, 130 (1930).
[CrossRef]

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 11, 156 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Bird, R. E.

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

M. A. Box, S. Y. Lo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1068 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Browning, S. R.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, T. N.

T. N. Carlson, R. S. Caverly, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlson, J. M. Prospero, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero, T. N. Carlson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5255 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Caverly, R. S.

T. N. Carlson, R. S. Caverly, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, Solar and Terrestrial Radiation (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 235.

Culbertson, M. F.

W. M. Elsasser, M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monogr. 4, No. 23, 1 (1960).

Curran, R. J.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, “Use of Scattering Techniques in Cloud Microphysics Research I. The Aureole Method,” U.S.A.F. Project RAND report R-590-PR (1970).

DeMonbrun, D.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser, M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monogr. 4, No. 23, 1 (1960).

Elterman, L.

Fea, G.

F. Prodi, G. Fea, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “Transport and Deposition of Sahara Dust over Alps,” in 15 Internationale Tagung für Alpine Meteorologie, Grindelwald19–23 Sept.1978. Tagungsbericht 1. Teil (1978), pp. 179–182.

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Foskett, L. W.

N. B. Foster, D. T. Volz, L. W. Foskett, “A Spectral Hygrometer for Measuring Total Precipitable Water,” in Humidity and Moisture, Vol. 1, (Reinhold, New York, 1965), p. 455.

Foster, N. B.

N. B. Foster, D. T. Volz, L. W. Foskett, “A Spectral Hygrometer for Measuring Total Precipitable Water,” in Humidity and Moisture, Vol. 1, (Reinhold, New York, 1965), p. 455.

Fröhlich, C.

Ganor, E.

D. H. Yaalon, E. Ganor, “East Mediterranean Trajectories of Dust-Carrying Storms from the Sahara and Sinai,” in Scope 14, Saharan Dust, C. Morales, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 187–210.

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Gates, D. M.

Ginzbourg, D.

D. H. Yaalon, D. Ginzbourg, Sedimentology 6, 315 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I. Theoretical Basis (Clarendon, Oxford, 1964), p. 125.

Griggs, M.

M. Griggs, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 22, 356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Guzzi, R.

C. Tomasi, R. Guzzi, J. Phys. E 7, 647 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harrop, W. J.

Heidt, M.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hulstrom, R. L.

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, F. W. Peterson, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 62 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jeske, K.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Ya.

K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 870.

Lee, J. T.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. Y.

M. A. Box, S. Y. Lo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1068 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McAllum, W. E.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B (1976),” AFGL Environmental Research Paper 587, AFGL-TR-76-0258 (AFGL, Bedford, Mass., 1976).

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Morgan, A.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, F. W.

W. M. Irvine, F. W. Peterson, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 62 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, D. E.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Potter, J.

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prodi, F.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Prodi, G. Fea, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “Transport and Deposition of Sahara Dust over Alps,” in 15 Internationale Tagung für Alpine Meteorologie, Grindelwald19–23 Sept.1978. Tagungsbericht 1. Teil (1978), pp. 179–182.

Prospero, J. M.

T. N. Carlson, J. M. Prospero, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero, T. N. Carlson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5255 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Reitan, C. H.

C. H. Reitan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 2, 776 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B (1976),” AFGL Environmental Research Paper 587, AFGL-TR-76-0258 (AFGL, Bedford, Mass., 1976).

Shaw, G. E.

C. Fröhlich, G. E. Shaw, Appl. Opt. 19, 1773 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Shaw, Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L.

Shettle, E. P.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B (1976),” AFGL Environmental Research Paper 587, AFGL-TR-76-0258 (AFGL, Bedford, Mass., 1976).

Tampieri, F.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).

Tomasi, C.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1058 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorpl. 16, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, R. Guzzi, J. Phys. E 7, 647 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vittori, O.

R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Volz, D. T.

N. B. Foster, D. T. Volz, L. W. Foskett, “A Spectral Hygrometer for Measuring Total Precipitable Water,” in Humidity and Moisture, Vol. 1, (Reinhold, New York, 1965), p. 455.

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 13, 1732 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, L. Sheehan, Appl. Opt. 10, 363 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Yaalon, D. H.

D. H. Yaalon, D. Ginzbourg, Sedimentology 6, 315 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Yaalon, E. Ganor, “East Mediterranean Trajectories of Dust-Carrying Storms from the Sahara and Sinai,” in Scope 14, Saharan Dust, C. Morales, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 187–210.

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B

F. E. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Beitr. Phys. Atmos.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, F. Tampieri, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 52, 215 (1979).

Geogr. Ann.

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 11, 156 (1929).
[CrossRef]

A. Ångström, Geogr. Ann. 12, 130 (1930).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc.

M. Griggs, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 22, 356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

M. A. Box, S. Y. Lo, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1068 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlson, J. M. Prospero, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, M. Heidt, K. Jeske, J. T. Lee, D. DeMonbrun, A. Morgan, J. Potter, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1312 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1058 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Reitan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 2, 776 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorpl.

C. Tomasi, J. Appl. Meteorpl. 16, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Guzzi, C. Tomasi, O. Vittori, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 517 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Irvine, F. W. Peterson, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 62 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlson, R. S. Caverly, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero, T. N. Carlson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5255 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Prodi, G. Fea, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

C. Tomasi, R. Guzzi, J. Phys. E 7, 647 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Monogr.

W. M. Elsasser, M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monogr. 4, No. 23, 1 (1960).

Pure Appl. Geophys.

G. E. Shaw, Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sedimentology

D. H. Yaalon, D. Ginzbourg, Sedimentology 6, 315 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. H. Yaalon, E. Ganor, “East Mediterranean Trajectories of Dust-Carrying Storms from the Sahara and Sinai,” in Scope 14, Saharan Dust, C. Morales, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 187–210.

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “Transport and Deposition of Sahara Dust over Alps,” in 15 Internationale Tagung für Alpine Meteorologie, Grindelwald19–23 Sept.1978. Tagungsbericht 1. Teil (1978), pp. 179–182.

D. Deirmendjian, “Use of Scattering Techniques in Cloud Microphysics Research I. The Aureole Method,” U.S.A.F. Project RAND report R-590-PR (1970).

K. L. Coulson, Solar and Terrestrial Radiation (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 235.

K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 870.

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation I. Theoretical Basis (Clarendon, Oxford, 1964), p. 125.

N. B. Foster, D. T. Volz, L. W. Foskett, “A Spectral Hygrometer for Measuring Total Precipitable Water,” in Humidity and Moisture, Vol. 1, (Reinhold, New York, 1965), p. 455.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 411, AFCRL-72-0497 (AFCRL, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B (1976),” AFGL Environmental Research Paper 587, AFGL-TR-76-0258 (AFGL, Bedford, Mass., 1976).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Drawing of the optical apparatus and of the sensing element of the multiwavelength sun-photometer. Elements of the instrument: (1) quartz window with circular diaphragm as field stop; (2) one of the eight bandpass filters mounted on the rotating support; (3) quartz lens having an effective focal length of 10 cm; (4) glass window for reading the number of the filter on the optical axis of the instrument; (5) microswitch for the step-by-step regulation of rotation movement of the filter support; (6) synchronous motor (24 V) driving the filter support; (7) focal diaphragm with frosted quartz diffuser; (8) sensing element (UDT 500 Photop); (9) heat insulating walls; (10) thermostat; (11) heating boards; (12) multipolar connections of photometer output voltage and thermostat power supply. The element numbers corre spond to those in Sec. II.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral series of the transmittance curves of the eight bandpass filters mounted on sun-photometer A. The filter numbers correspond to those in Table I. The dashed curve gives the minimum absolute responsivity of the sensing element (UDT 500 Photop) as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of a sun-photometer. Parts of the instrument: TR, trestle; AM, altazimuth mounting; S, sun-photometer with quartz window, entrance diaphragm, and cylindrical box containing the filter support disk in sight; T, telescope; EP, eyepiece; and EU, electronic unit with the output voltage display in sight.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average time patterns of atmospheric optical thickness τ(λ) at three window wavelengths as obtained from measurements of direct solar radiation taken with two Volz sun-photometers (model A, new version) at Passo delle Radici (1530-m MSL) on 17 Nov. 1981. The solid circles correspond to two time intervals chosen for the calibration of our sun-photometers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of Langley best-fit line found for different time intervals chosen to calibrate sun-photometer A at the wavelength λ = 0.550 μm (filter 4). The values of R J ¯ 0 (0.550 μm) were found to vary between 4.962 and 5.114 V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time patterns of atmospheric optical thickness τ(λ) at seven window wavelengths as obtained from measurements of direct solar radiation taken with sun-photometer A at Passo delle Radici (1530-m MSL) on 17 Nov. 1981. The numbers on the right-hand side refer to the filter numbers of sun-photometer A given in Table I.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength-dependence patterns of atmospheric optical thickness τ(λ) as obtained from measurements taken with five sun-photometers A, B, C, D, and E at Mt. Cimone top (2170-m MSL) on 6 July 1981 in the short time interval from 07:14 to 07:19 local time. The dashed curve gives the optical thickness by Rayleigh scattering as calculated from summer atmospheric model at 45° N latitude27 and normalized to the station pressure of 790 mbar.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two sets of measurements of the hygrometric ratio G given by photometers C and D and plotted as a function of the square root of water vapor content m(ϑ)w on the sun path, as simultaneously measured by a high precision infrared hygrometer.33 The best-fit curves obtained in terms of Eq. (11) give the constants Go and k proposed in Table III.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time patterns of precipitable water w measured with the five sun-photometers at Modena station (34-m MSL) on 20 July 1981.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison between evaluations of atmospheric optical thickness τ(λ) at three window wavelengths as obtained from simultaneous measurements taken with sun-photometers A and E at Passo delle Radici (1530-m MSL) in the course of 10 and 11 Nov. 1981. The peak wavelengths of the bandpass filters mounted on the two sun-photometers are also given.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Values of Peak Transmittance Wavelength λp and of Half-Bandwidth Δλ of the Bandpass Filters Mounted on the Five Sun-Photometers

Tables Icon

Table II Values of Zero Air Mass Output Voltage J0(λ) and Standard Deviations for the Seven Window Wavelengths of the Five Sun-Photometers

Tables Icon

Table III Values of Constants G0 and k for Use in Eq. (11) and of Correlation Coefficients r as Obtained from Calibration of the Five Sun-Photometers with a High Precision Infrared Hygrometer33

Equations (12)

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J ( λ ) = C 1 R F 0 ( λ ) exp [ m ( ϑ ) τ ( λ ) ] + C 2 Ω υ I d [ λ , ϑ , φ , A ( λ ) , τ ( λ ) ] d ω ,
J 0 ( λ ) = C 1 F 0 ( λ )
J ( λ ) = R J 0 ( λ ) exp [ m ( ϑ ) τ ( λ ] ,
τ ( λ ) = τ ( 1 μ m ) λ n ,
τ ( λ ) = τ 0 + γ m ( ϑ ) .
ln J ( λ ) = ln J 1 ( λ ) + ( m m 1 ) [ ln J 2 ( λ ) ln J 1 ( λ ) ] / ( m 2 m 1 ) ,
ln [ R J ¯ 0 ( λ ) ] = ln J 1 ( λ ) m 1 [ ln J 2 ( λ ) ln J 1 ( λ ) ] / ( m 2 m 1 ) .
ln J 1 ( λ ) = ln [ R J 0 ( λ ) ] m 1 τ 1 ( λ ) ,
ln J 2 ( λ ) = ln [ R J 0 ( λ ) ] m 2 τ 2 ( λ ) ,
J 0 ( λ ) / J ¯ 0 ( λ ) = exp { m 1 m 2 [ τ 2 ( λ ) τ 1 ( λ ) ] / ( m 2 m 1 ) }
G = G 0 exp [ k m ( ϑ ) w ] ,
G = G 1 exp { k 1 [ m ( ϑ ) w ] 1 / 1.78 } ,

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