Abstract

The visual appearance of antireflection-coated transparent and heat-reflecting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films on glass was studied by a colorimetric analysis in which the chromaticity coordinates for transmitted and reflected daylight were evaluated for various film thicknesses. A color purity of <1% in normal transmission and <10% in normal reflection could be achieved with ITO thicknesses in the 220–260- or 335–365-nm ranges and MgF2 thicknesses in the 90–105-nm range. These design criteria yield very efficient window coatings with high visual transmittance, low thermal emittance, and little or no perceived color.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Berman, S. D. Silverstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 25, 286 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Vossen, Phys. Thin Films 9, 1 (1977).
  3. G. Haacke, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 73 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Opt. 20, 2606 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Lampert, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 1 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Haacke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 10 (1982).
  7. G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).
  8. H. Schroder, Glastech. Ber. 39, 156 (1966).
  9. R. Groth, Glastech. Ber. 50, 239 (1977).
  10. H. J. Glaser, Glastech. Ber. 50, 248 (1977).
  11. R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 16 (1982).
  14. W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).
  15. G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ebert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 29 (1982).
  17. W. C. Kittler, I. T. Ritchie, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 61 (1982).
  18. W.-D. Munz, S. R. Reineck, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 65 (1982).
  19. J. C. Manifacier, Thin Solid Films 90, 297 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. M. Jarzebski, Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 13 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).
  24. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  25. A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1963).
  26. D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  27. G. Wyszecki, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Sec. 9.
  28. F. Grum, C. J. Bartleson, Eds., Optical Radiation Measurements, Vol. 2, Color Measurement (Academic, New York, 1980).
  29. D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement: Theme and Variations, Vol. 27 (Springer, Berlin, 1981).
  30. N. B. Rekant, A. V. Sheklein, Geliotekhnika 4(5), 49 (1968) [Appl. Sol. Energy 4(5), 35 (1968)].
  31. J. C. C. Fan, F. J. Bachner, Appl. Opt. 15, 1012 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Y. Ohhata, S. Yoshida, Oyo Butsuri 46, 43 (1977); S. Yoshida, Appl. Opt. 17, 145 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).
  34. R. Clanget, Appl. Phys. 2, 247 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  35. I. Hamberg, unpublished.
  36. W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), p. 7–95.
  37. A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 89, 191 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Data supplied by Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y.
  40. H. Backman, Glass Control AB, Malmo, Sweden; private communication.

1982 (13)

G. Haacke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 10 (1982).

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 16 (1982).

W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).

J. Ebert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 29 (1982).

W. C. Kittler, I. T. Ritchie, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 61 (1982).

W.-D. Munz, S. R. Reineck, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 65 (1982).

J. C. Manifacier, Thin Solid Films 90, 297 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Jarzebski, Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).

H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 89, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (6)

C. M. Lampert, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Opt. 20, 2606 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (5)

R. Groth, Glastech. Ber. 50, 239 (1977).

H. J. Glaser, Glastech. Ber. 50, 248 (1977).

J. L. Vossen, Phys. Thin Films 9, 1 (1977).

G. Haacke, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 73 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohhata, S. Yoshida, Oyo Butsuri 46, 43 (1977); S. Yoshida, Appl. Opt. 17, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

S. M. Berman, S. D. Silverstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 25, 286 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. Clanget, Appl. Phys. 2, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

N. B. Rekant, A. V. Sheklein, Geliotekhnika 4(5), 49 (1968) [Appl. Sol. Energy 4(5), 35 (1968)].

1966 (1)

H. Schroder, Glastech. Ber. 39, 156 (1966).

Baba, S.

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bachner, F. J.

Backman, H.

H. Backman, Glass Control AB, Malmo, Sweden; private communication.

Berman, S. M.

S. M. Berman, S. D. Silverstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 25, 286 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, C. A.

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Clanget, R.

R. Clanget, Appl. Phys. 2, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dachselt, W.-D.

W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).

Ebert, J.

J. Ebert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 29 (1982).

Fan, J. C. C.

Frank, G.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, H. J.

H. J. Glaser, Glastech. Ber. 50, 248 (1977).

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).

C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Opt. 20, 2606 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groth, R.

R. Groth, Glastech. Ber. 50, 239 (1977).

Haacke, G.

G. Haacke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 10 (1982).

G. Haacke, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 73 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).

I. Hamberg, unpublished.

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1963).

Hjortsberg, A.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Howson, R. P.

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 16 (1982).

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jarzebski, Z. M.

Z. M. Jarzebski, Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Karlsson, B.

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, T.

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kauer, E.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kinbara, A.

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, W. C.

W. C. Kittler, I. T. Ritchie, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 61 (1982).

Kostlin, H.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lampert, C. M.

C. M. Lampert, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement: Theme and Variations, Vol. 27 (Springer, Berlin, 1981).

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, Thin Solid Films 90, 297 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Matuda, N.

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Munz, W.-D.

W.-D. Munz, S. R. Reineck, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 65 (1982).

W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).

Ohhata, Y.

Y. Ohhata, S. Yoshida, Oyo Butsuri 46, 43 (1977); S. Yoshida, Appl. Opt. 17, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 89, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reineck, S. R.

W.-D. Munz, S. R. Reineck, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 65 (1982).

Rekant, N. B.

N. B. Rekant, A. V. Sheklein, Geliotekhnika 4(5), 49 (1968) [Appl. Sol. Energy 4(5), 35 (1968)].

Ribbing, C.-G.

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ridge, M. I.

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 16 (1982).

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, I. T.

W. C. Kittler, I. T. Ritchie, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 61 (1982).

Scherer, M.

W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).

Schmitte, F. J.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

Schroder, H.

H. Schroder, Glastech. Ber. 39, 156 (1966).

Sheklein, A. V.

N. B. Rekant, A. V. Sheklein, Geliotekhnika 4(5), 49 (1968) [Appl. Sol. Energy 4(5), 35 (1968)].

Silverstein, S. D.

S. M. Berman, S. D. Silverstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 25, 286 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Takamisawa, K.

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Valkonen, E.

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vossen, J. L.

J. L. Vossen, Phys. Thin Films 9, 1 (1977).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Wyszecki, G.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975).

G. Wyszecki, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Sec. 9.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Yoshida, S.

Y. Ohhata, S. Yoshida, Oyo Butsuri 46, 43 (1977); S. Yoshida, Appl. Opt. 17, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

S. M. Berman, S. D. Silverstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 25, 286 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. Haacke, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 73 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Clanget, Appl. Phys. 2, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geliotekhnika (1)

N. B. Rekant, A. V. Sheklein, Geliotekhnika 4(5), 49 (1968) [Appl. Sol. Energy 4(5), 35 (1968)].

Glastech. Ber. (3)

H. Schroder, Glastech. Ber. 39, 156 (1966).

R. Groth, Glastech. Ber. 50, 239 (1977).

H. J. Glaser, Glastech. Ber. 50, 248 (1977).

Oyo Butsuri (1)

Y. Ohhata, S. Yoshida, Oyo Butsuri 46, 43 (1977); S. Yoshida, Appl. Opt. 17, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Z. M. Jarzebski, Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Thin Films (1)

J. L. Vossen, Phys. Thin Films 9, 1 (1977).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (8)

J. Ebert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 29 (1982).

W. C. Kittler, I. T. Ritchie, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 61 (1982).

W.-D. Munz, S. R. Reineck, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 65 (1982).

G. Haacke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 10 (1982).

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, F. J. Schmitte, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 58 (1982).

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 16 (1982).

W.-D. Dachselt, W.-D. Munz, M. Scherer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 37 (1982).

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 31 (1982).

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

C. M. Lampert, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (7)

G. Frank, E. Kauer, H. Kostlin, Thin Solid Films 77, 107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Howson, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, Thin Solid Films 80, 137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, C.-G. Ribbing, Thin Solid Films 86, 91 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Manifacier, Thin Solid Films 90, 297 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinbara, S. Baba, N. Matuda, K. Takamisawa, Thin Solid Films 84, 205 (1981); Thin Solid Films 89, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 89, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

Data supplied by Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y.

H. Backman, Glass Control AB, Malmo, Sweden; private communication.

I. Hamberg, unpublished.

W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), p. 7–95.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1963).

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1975).

G. Wyszecki, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Sec. 9.

F. Grum, C. J. Bartleson, Eds., Optical Radiation Measurements, Vol. 2, Color Measurement (Academic, New York, 1980).

D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement: Theme and Variations, Vol. 27 (Springer, Berlin, 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral normal transmittance T and spectral near-normal reflectance R of an ITO film with (solid curves) and without (dashed curves) an MgF2 antireflection coating. The ITO film was prepared by reactive electron-beam evaporation of In2O3 + 9 mol % SnO2 onto heated glass plates, and the MgF2 coating was applied by resistive vacuum evaporation onto unheated substrates. More information on fabrication techniques can be found in Refs. 2123. The dotted curve represents the spectral photopic luminous efficiency function of the standard observer for photometry (see, for example, Ref. 24).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE 1931 (x,y) chromaticity diagram with wavelength (in nanometers) marked along the spectrum locus. Chromaticity coordinates for three standard illuminants are indicated by crosses. Dashed curves refer to 10 and 50% excitation purity with regard to illuminant C. The solid curve in the center represents the locus of normally reflected light from an ITO film on glass irradiated by illuminant C as the film thickness goes from 200 to 500 nm. Chromaticities corresponding to 10-nm thickness increments are marked on the curve. The upper inset depicts the three color-matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex dielectric function of e-beam evaporated ITO. The ɛ1 values were very reproducible, whereas the ɛ2 values in the mid-spectral range were as large as 10−2 for some films. These differences play no practical role for evaluation of chromaticity coordinates below.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solid curves show the CIE 1931 (x,y) chromaticity coordinates for normal transmission of daylight (standard illuminant C) through an ITO film (250–400-nm thickness) antireflected by MgF2 (0-,90-,95-,100-,105-nm thickness t) on glass. Chromaticities corresponding to 10-nm thickness increments of ITO are marked on the curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solid curves show the CIE 1931 (x,y) chromaticity coordinates for normal reflection of daylight (standard illuminant C) through an ITO film (250–400-nm thickness) antireflected by MgF2 (0-,90-,95-,100-,105-nm thickness t) on glass. Chromaticities corresponding to 10-nm thickness increments of ITO are marked on the curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CIE 1931 (x,y) chromaticity coordinates for oblique transmission (a) and oblique reflection (b) of daylight (standard illuminant C) through a 250–400-nm thick ITO film antireflection coated with 100 nm of MgF2 on glass. Chromaticities corresponding to 10-nm thickness increments of ITO are marked on the curves.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Colorimetric Quantities for the Spectral Transmittance T and Reflectance R Data for 260 nm of ITO with and without 100 nm of MgF2 on Glass (Results are Shown also for Illuminant C)

Equations (3)

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X = k d λ ϕ ( λ ) x ¯ ( λ )
k = [ d λ S ( λ ) y ¯ ( λ ) ] 1 ,
x = X ( X + Y + Z ) 1

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