Abstract

Several orders of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in monomode and multimode fibers have been observed. The relatively low power in the visible used in the quasi-stationary regime permitted observation of sharply defined Stokes and anti-Stokes spectral lines without any continua. Results of pump-to-Stokes power conversion in a monomode fiber indicate a striking equivalence between pump power and fiber length. The dependence of multiple SRS generation/amplification with these parameters is investigated up to the limit of near total pump extinction. We propose a qualitative explanation of these facts, although a detailed theory of nonlinear behavior of fibers is wanting. Parametric four-photon mixing is again confirmed to account for the generation of stimulated anti-Stokes radiation in multimode fibers and its absolute absence in monomode fibers.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications,S. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979).
  4. K. Kitayama, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 20, 2428 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Botineau, F. Gires, A. Saissy, C. Vannesti, A. Azema, Appl. Opt. 17, 1208 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Rev. Bras. Fis. 11, 917 (1981).
  8. R. G. Smith, Appl. Opt. 11, 2489 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. R. Shen, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. P. Ippen, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy,S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, J. F. Scott, M. O. Scully, Eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1975), p. 213.
  13. S. M. Jensen, M. K. Barnosky, in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper TUD7.
  14. F. Capasso, P. di Porto, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1472 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Bloembergen, Non-linear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1977).
  16. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Solid State Commun. 34, 305 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1981

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Rev. Bras. Fis. 11, 917 (1981).

K. Kitayama, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 20, 2428 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Solid State Commun. 34, 305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

1976

C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, P. di Porto, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1472 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

1970

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964

Y. R. Shen, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azema, A.

Barbosa, F. R.

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Rev. Bras. Fis. 11, 917 (1981).

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Solid State Commun. 34, 305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barnosky, M. K.

S. M. Jensen, M. K. Barnosky, in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper TUD7.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

Y. R. Shen, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1964).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, Non-linear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1977).

Botineau, J.

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, P. di Porto, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1472 (1976).
[CrossRef]

di Porto, P.

F. Capasso, P. di Porto, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1472 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gires, F.

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy,S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, J. F. Scott, M. O. Scully, Eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1975), p. 213.

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, M. K. Barnosky, in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper TUD7.

Kaiser, W.

D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Kitayama, K.

Labudde, P.

P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Saissy, A.

Seikai, S.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

Srivastava, R.

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Rev. Bras. Fis. 11, 917 (1981).

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Solid State Commun. 34, 305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications,S. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979).

Tateda, M.

Vannesti, C.

Von der Linde, D.

D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 208 (1974);D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Labudde, H. P. Weber, R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Capasso, P. di Porto, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1472 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

Y. R. Shen, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. Von der Linde, M. Maier, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. 178, 11 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Bras. Fis.

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Rev. Bras. Fis. 11, 917 (1981).

Solid State Commun.

F. R. Barbosa, R. Srivastava, Solid State Commun. 34, 305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Bloembergen, Non-linear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1977).

E. P. Ippen, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy,S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, J. F. Scott, M. O. Scully, Eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1975), p. 213.

S. M. Jensen, M. K. Barnosky, in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper TUD7.

R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications,S. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of laser—Stokes conversion with fiber length. Fiber 5 with average 70 W/pulse inside the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of laser—Stokes conversion with pump power. Fiber 5, 65-m length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multiple Stokes spectrum of Fiber 5. Sample length 100 m. Anti-Stokes radiation is absent.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes spectrum of Fiber 8. Sample length 30 m. The anti-Stokes side had pump power twice that of the Stokes side.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser—Stokes conversion: (a) dependence with sample length for plane wave excitation (after Ref. 10); (b) dependence with pump power for Gaussian profile excitation (after Ref. 11); (c) dependence with pump power for liquid core multimode fiber (after Ref. 12).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gaussian profile output of Fiber 5.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Thresholds for Strongest SRS Lines; Watts in the Fibers

Tables Icon

Table II Absolute Frequencies of Laser and Multiple Stokes SRS in Fibers (in Units of cm−1)

Tables Icon

Table III Propagation Characteristics of the Fibers

Equations (2)

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P c = 16 A α γ 0 ,
P ( 3 ) ( ω A S ) = χ ( 3 ) ( ω A S ; ω L , ω L , ω S ) E L 2 ( ω 1 ) E S * ( ω ) ,

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