Abstract

A method of obtaining an indicatrix or a scattering diagram of the earth's surface is developed. When we regard the earth's surface as a kind of irregular surface, the indicatrix of scattered radiation is a way of effective representation of its surface roughness. The indicatrices of radiation over the sands of a seashore, a downtown area of Tokyo, and some of its suburban areas are obtained from Landsat MSS data. The radiant intensity decreases within the range of 32° to 65° of scattering angles in accordance with the degree of urbanization. Experimental results obtained by a remote sensing simulator are compared with those of Landsat MSS data analysis.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Guild, J. Sci. Instrum. 17, 178 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).
  3. D. Goodenough, Can. J. Remote Sensing 2, 18 (1976).
  4. R. G. Best, J. R. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 44, 1023 (1978).
  5. Goddard Space Flight Center Landsat News Letter, NASA(1June1977).
  6. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  7. H. Genda, H. Okayama, Appl. Opt. 17, 807 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. R. Rambauske, R. R. Gruenzel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 315 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1978

R. G. Best, J. R. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 44, 1023 (1978).

H. Genda, H. Okayama, Appl. Opt. 17, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

Goddard Space Flight Center Landsat News Letter, NASA(1June1977).

1976

J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).

D. Goodenough, Can. J. Remote Sensing 2, 18 (1976).

1965

1940

J. Guild, J. Sci. Instrum. 17, 178 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Best, R. G.

R. G. Best, J. R. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 44, 1023 (1978).

Dyer, C. R.

J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).

Genda, H.

Goodenough, D.

D. Goodenough, Can. J. Remote Sensing 2, 18 (1976).

Gruenzel, R. R.

Guild, J.

J. Guild, J. Sci. Instrum. 17, 178 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

Rambauske, W. R.

Rosenfeld, A.

J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).

Smith, J. R.

R. G. Best, J. R. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 44, 1023 (1978).

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Weszka, J. S.

J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).

Appl. Opt.

Can. J. Remote Sensing

D. Goodenough, Can. J. Remote Sensing 2, 18 (1976).

Goddard Space Flight Center Landsat News Letter

Goddard Space Flight Center Landsat News Letter, NASA(1June1977).

IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern.

J. S. Weszka, C. R. Dyer, A. Rosenfeld, IEEE Tans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-6, 269 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Sci. Instrum.

J. Guild, J. Sci. Instrum. 17, 178 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing

R. G. Best, J. R. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 44, 1023 (1978).

Other

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Indicatrices for different solar elevations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Landsat image of training areas. Arrows 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the Ginza, Ryogoku, Koiwa, and Kujukuri Coast areas, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aerial view of Ginza and its surrounding area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of solar elevation at the Kujukuri Coast.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reciprocity of scattering from a rough surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

High correlation of scattering reciprocity. The dots were plotted by inversing the incident and reflection directions using the sand of the Kujukuri Coast.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Indicatrices of the sand of the Kujukuri Coast obtained from bands 4–7 of Landsat MSS data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Indicatrices of the urban areas (Ginza, Ryogoku, and Koiwa) and the Kujukuri Coast obtained from Landsat MSS band 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Indicatrices of the sand of the Kujukuri Coast obtained with a remote sensing simulator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Roughness distribution of the Kujukuri Coast. Mean value is 226.2 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Indicatrices of a sphere calculated with a theoretical model. For example, when an angle θ1 + θ2 is 70°, the value of normalized radiant intensity is 0.5 and it is equal to any of the incident angles.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Indicatrices of the sandhills obtained from Landsat MSS band 5 (A), those of sand (B) and a spherical model (C) measured with a remote sensing simulator, and those of a spherical model of sand calculated theoretically (D). The zenith angle of the detector is 10°.

Tables (2)

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Table I Adjusted Low Gain Landsat MSS Sensor Calibration

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Table II Dates of Landsat MSS Recordings Selected for this Study

Equations (1)

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R i = R min i + ( R max i R min i ) 127 × N i ,

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