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References

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  1. B. L. Gotwols, G. B. Irani, Appl. Opt. 21, 851 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Stilwell, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1974 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Cox, J. Mar. Res. 16, 199 (1958).
  4. J. W. Wright, W. C. Keller, Phys. Fluids 14, 466 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Mar. Res. 13, 198 (1954).

1982

1971

J. W. Wright, W. C. Keller, Phys. Fluids 14, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. Stilwell, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1974 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1958

C. S. Cox, J. Mar. Res. 16, 199 (1958).

1954

C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Mar. Res. 13, 198 (1954).

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Mar. Res. 13, 198 (1954).

Cox, C. S.

C. S. Cox, J. Mar. Res. 16, 199 (1958).

Gotwols, B. L.

Irani, G. B.

Keller, W. C.

J. W. Wright, W. C. Keller, Phys. Fluids 14, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Mar. Res. 13, 198 (1954).

Stilwell, D.

D. Stilwell, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1974 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. W.

J. W. Wright, W. C. Keller, Phys. Fluids 14, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Geophys. Res.

D. Stilwell, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1974 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

C. S. Cox, J. Mar. Res. 16, 199 (1958).

C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Mar. Res. 13, 198 (1954).

Phys. Fluids

J. W. Wright, W. C. Keller, Phys. Fluids 14, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system for the 2-D measurement of one component of wave slope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiance observed as a function of distance (measured at the static water level) perpendicular to the fluorescent lamp. The ordinate is in analog to digital converter units. A least-squares fit to the data has been displaced upward to allow the data points to be seen. The data have been corrected by subtracting the digital value obtained at each point with the fluorescent lamp extinguished. The compensation wedge was removed for this measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Probability density of the radiance observed during a period of 6.3 min at a point in the center of the usable portion of the wave images at a wind speed of 10 m/sec and a fetch of 5.3 m. The instrumental background has been subtracted. The gradient in the light source is oriented in the upwind/downwind direction with the fluorescent lamp upwind. The abscissa is in analog to digital converter units D (proportional to radiance). The mean μ is shown as the vertical dashed line, about which is centered a horizontal bar showing ±1 standard deviation σ. As expected, the third and fourth normalized central moments [Mn = 〈(Dμ)n〈/σn] show a large deviation from the normal distribution due to the exponential light source. (For the normal distribution M3 = 0, M4 = 3.) (b) Probability density of the same data as in (a), but the logarithm was taken before the probability density was calculated. The abscissa is thus proportional to one component of the upwind/downwind wave slope. The abscissa is uncalibrated, except that zero slope has been accurately determined. Both skew and kurtosis have been significantly reduced.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional wave number spectrum of the upwind/ downwind slope component. The spectrum has been normalized, logarithmically compressed, and encoded as five levels, each separated by 6 dB. The figure is white where the spectral density is more than 30 dB below the peak. The wind speed was 10.0 m/sec at a fetch of 5.3 m.

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