Abstract

Both the spatial growth rate of stimulated Raman scattering and conversion efficiency to Stokes radiation were measured in three liquids (methanol, ethanol, and acetone) in the regime where the pump pulse is significantly depleted. Self-focusing was present, and, when taken into account by model calculations, the region of maximum Stokes spatial growth is in agreement with experiment. Conversion efficiency to first Stokes was measured for both focused and unfocused pump beams in liquid HCl and is in agreement with the depleted beam model.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Kaiser, M. Maier, in Laser Handbook, Vol. 2, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schultz-Dubois, Eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1077.
  2. A. Lauberau, W. Kaiser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 607 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Chem. Phys. 55, 73 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2897 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Lewis, Ph.D. Thesis, Northern Illinois U., DeKalb (1982).
  6. M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), p. 309.
  8. J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 7, 196 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Rahn, M. Maier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 558 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. H. Lowdermilk, G. I. Kachen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 133 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, Phys. Rev. A 5, 341 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2556 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. R. Nestor, E. R. Lippincott, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 305 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Abe, M. Ito, J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (1)

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Chem. Phys. 55, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

A. Lauberau, W. Kaiser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 607 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. Abe, M. Ito, J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. H. Lowdermilk, G. I. Kachen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2556 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. R. Nestor, E. R. Lippincott, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 305 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, Phys. Rev. A 5, 341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

O. Rahn, M. Maier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 558 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abe, N.

N. Abe, M. Ito, J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, H. J.

J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Carmen, R. L.

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, Phys. Rev. A 5, 341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, J. E.

J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2556 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

N. Abe, M. Ito, J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kachen, G. I.

W. H. Lowdermilk, G. I. Kachen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

A. Lauberau, W. Kaiser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 607 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaiser, M. Maier, in Laser Handbook, Vol. 2, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schultz-Dubois, Eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1077.

Knudtson, J. T.

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2897 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Chem. Phys. 55, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lauberau, A.

A. Lauberau, W. Kaiser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 607 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. A.

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2897 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Chem. Phys. 55, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lewis, Ph.D. Thesis, Northern Illinois U., DeKalb (1982).

Lippincott, E. R.

J. R. Nestor, E. R. Lippincott, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 305 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

W. H. Lowdermilk, G. I. Kachen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M. E.

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, Phys. Rev. A 5, 341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

O. Rahn, M. Maier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 558 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaiser, M. Maier, in Laser Handbook, Vol. 2, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schultz-Dubois, Eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1077.

Murphy, W. F.

J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nestor, J. R.

J. R. Nestor, E. R. Lippincott, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 305 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Perchard, J. P.

J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, O.

O. Rahn, M. Maier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 558 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rentjes, J.

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, F.

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), p. 309.

Wang, C. S.

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. H. Lowdermilk, G. I. Kachen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Mack, R. L. Carmen, J. Rentjes, N. Bloembergen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 209 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

M. A. Lewis, J. T. Knudtson, Chem. Phys. 55, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2556 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

J. R. Nestor, E. R. Lippincott, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 305 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Abe, M. Ito, J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

J. P. Perchard, W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, Mol. Phys. 23, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, Phys. Rev. A 5, 341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carmen, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. L. Carmen, M. E. Mack, F. Shimizu, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1327 (1969).
[CrossRef]

O. Rahn, M. Maier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 558 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. Lauberau, W. Kaiser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 607 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. Kaiser, M. Maier, in Laser Handbook, Vol. 2, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schultz-Dubois, Eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1077.

M. A. Lewis, Ph.D. Thesis, Northern Illinois U., DeKalb (1982).

A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), p. 309.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The 1/e2 radius of the 0.532-μm beam vs distance from a 100-cm lens (in air).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial growth apparatus. The filters removed the pump pulse and attenuated the most intense Stokes pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Methanol. Stokes energy vs distance along the optical axis for four 0.532-μm input energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ethanol. Stokes energy vs distance along the optical axis for three 0.532 μm input energies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Acetone. Stokes energy vs distance along the optical axis for four input energies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

0.532-μm radius 1/e at z = 5.5 cm for methanol, ethanol, and acetone as a function of 0.532-μm energy. The dark points indicate at least several percent conversion to Stokes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lower panel shows the Stokes beam profile at z = 2.5 and 4.6 cm (in air). The upper panel shows the Stoke's radius vs distance. The Stokes beam divergence is 15 mrad.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Stokes growth curves (EStokes) and the quasi-derivative curve for (A) methanol, (B) ethanol, and (C) acetone.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated (smooth line and and 0) and experimental derivatives or the Stokes spatial growth for (A) methanol, (B) ethanol, and (C) acetone.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stokes (1.52-μm) energy vs input energy (1.06-μm) in liquid HCl for a f = 25-cm lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Stokes (1.52-μm) energy vs input energy (1.52 μm) in liquid HCl using an unfocused input beam.

Tables (2)

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Table I gsll zmax Parameters

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Table II Stokes Energy Conversion in Liquid HCl

Equations (6)

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I ( r ) = I 0 exp ( 2 r 2 ω 0 2 ) = I 0 exp ( r 2 r 0 2 )
P s ( z ) = π r 0 2 g s k z ln I l ( 0 ) / I s ( 0 ) + k exp ( g s I l z ) I l ( 0 ) / I s ( 0 ) + k ,
T 2 = 1 π c Δ ν ¯ .
P s ( z ) = P l ( 0 ) ν s ν l + π r 0 2 g s z ν s ν l ln [ ν l ν s I s ( 0 ) I l ( 0 ) ] .
E s ( Z ) = ν s ν l m E l ( 27.6 ) m τ l π r 0 2 g s K z ν l ν s .
r 0 2 z = λ 2 π

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