Abstract

Holographic recordings have been made using lasers of short coherence and pulse length. Continuous frameless moving pictures show the wave front (pulse front) of light reflected by a mirror and focused by a lens. Light passing through interferometers has also been studied using this new method of dynamic observation. Cross sections between a thin sheet of light and a 3-D object have been recorded to demonstrate the possibilities of contouring. Finally a number of future experiments are proposed ranging from the measurements of industrial products to the study of relativistic effects.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Abramson, Opt. Lett. 3, 121 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Dugay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).
  4. D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Abramson, Appl. Opt. 11, 2562 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Abramson, The Making and Evaluation of Holograms (Academic, London, 1981).
  7. F. M. Mottier, R. Dändliker, B. Ineichen, Appl. Opt. 12, 243 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Berdagué, P. Facq, Appl. Opt. 21, 1950 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1975 (2)

D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Berdagué, P. Facq, Appl. Opt. 21, 1950 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

M. A. Dugay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).

1967 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abramson, N.

N. Abramson, Opt. Lett. 3, 121 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, Appl. Opt. 11, 2562 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, The Making and Evaluation of Holograms (Academic, London, 1981).

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H. O.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Berdagué, S.

Case, S. K.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, L. W.

D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

Dugay, M. A.

M. A. Dugay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).

Facq, P.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ineichen, B.

Lohmann, A. W.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mottier, F. M.

Rentzepis, P. M.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wecht, K. W.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Am. Sci. (1)

M. A. Dugay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, K. W. Wecht, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, L. W. Coleman, D. W. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 616 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

N. Abramson, The Making and Evaluation of Holograms (Academic, London, 1981).

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Figures (25)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

L, laser; A, spatial filter; O, object; C, observed point; H, hologram plate; B, point of observation; and D and E, two mirrors. e0, e1 and e2 are portions of ellipsoids perpendicular to the bisector of ACB. while h0, h1 and h2 are portions of hyperboloids parallel to the bisector of CBD. From the intersection of H by h0, only those parts on O are seen that represent its intersection by e0, because the pathlength ACB is equal to AEDB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

L, laser; A, spatial filter; O, object surface; M, mirror; Wm, main wavefront; and Wr, reflected wavefront.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A spherical wavefront from an argon laser enters at the left, illuminating a white-painted flat object surface at an oblique angle. The lower left end of a tilted mirror is just reached. (b) The wavefront has reached the middle of the mirror, the normal of which is inclined 40° to the horizontal line. The light is being reflected by the mirror upward and to the left. (c) All the reflected light is separating from the main wavefront which has just passed the mirror. (d) The two components of the light have separated completely, the reflected light leaving a black hole in the spherical wavefront. (e) The main wavefront exits to the right shadowed by some optical components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The experimental set up that produced the photos of Fig. 3 The white-painted object surface (O of Fig. 2) is an old door. It was chosen because it was large enough to reveal the curvature of the 30 mm thick spherical sheet of light. It was also mechanically rigid enough for the five seconds exposure and white-painted to give sufficient scattering of the light. To the door is fixed the mirror (M of Fig. 2). The large square black surface to the left is the reference mirror (E of Fig. 1) while the mirror (D of Fig. 1) and the hologram holder are seen far to the right.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The door with its mirror as holographed with continuous laser light of long coherence length. The difference as compared to Fig. 3 is certainly very striking.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A diagram showing what is to be expected when a spherical wavefront (W) emanating from the point source (S) is focused by the lens (L) towards the focal point (F). Light moves slower through glass than air, therefore the wavefront that has passed through the lens (Fw) is delayed. As the lens is thickest in its middle the originally convex wavefront is transformed into a concave one.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The practical result of the experiment described in Fig. 6. A three millimeter (10 picoseconds light pulse) thick pulsefront representing the spherical wavefront travels from right to left. It sweeps almost parallel to the observation screen and has not yet reached the cylindrical lens. (b) The wavefront has just partly passed through the lens (which is not seen in the photo). Only the top and bottom parts of Fw (Fig. 6) have yet reached out of the glass. (c) The light has left the lens and is focused towards the focal point. Observe the resemblens to the diagram of Fig. 6. (d) The length and the radius of curvature of the wavefront are decreasing as it travels away from the lens. (e) This exposure is made just before the wavefront has reached the focal point.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A composite of all the exposures shown in Fig. 7. An image of the lens is included to make the picture more clear.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light of short coherence length, representing a pulse length of some 100 picoseconds, enters the Michelson interferometer at I. The beam-splitter (Bs) divides the single pulse into two pulses (IIa and IIb). The two pulses travel different pathlengths and thus they will be time separated after recombination (IIIa and IIIb). The prisms at the ends of the two interferometer arms were in the final experiment substituted by mirrors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The Michelson interferometer of Fig. 9 is seen to the left while the obliquely illuminated observation screen (O of Fig. 1) is seen to the right. The bright band on the screen is the continuous collimated light from the interferometer as it looks in an ordinary photograph.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The single pulse entering the interferometer is divided into two pulses that are so separated in time that they do not reach each other (they are mutually incoherent). Thus no fringes are seen either in a static or a dynamic observation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The two pulses are just touching each other. As they travel with the speed of light from left to right the weak fringes in the center of the composite pulse are drowned by the bright zones in its front and back parts. Thus no fringes are seen in a static observation (the two light components are mutually incoherent). Still they are easily detected in this dynamic observation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The two pulses cover each other to about fifty percent. The fringes in the center are of high contrast in this dynamic observation. As the pulses pass by from left to right the time-averaging effect almost conceals the interference fringes so that they become very weak and difficult to distinguish when ordinary static observation is used. Thus one concludes that the two pulses are almost out of coherence.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The moiré analogy to the photograph of Fig. 13. The two pulses travelling from left to right with the speed of light are represented by two sets of almost vertical grids, the lines of which represent the wavefronts. Where the two grids intersect (the back part of the first pulse and the front part of the second pulse) a moiré pattern is formed representing the interference fringes.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The two pulses overlap completely because there was no pathlength difference. The fringes are of a high quality both when a dynamic or a static observation is used. Thus the two light components are mutually coherent.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Pulse (a) and pulse (b) of Fig. 9 are out of phase which is visualized by drawing the intensity of one pulse upwards, the other downwards. Where the two pulses overlap (C) the light is destroyed by destructive interference. Thus, two shorter pulses are formed out of the single original pulse. The separation of the centers of the two pulses is equal to the original pulse length.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

A short light pulse usually has a Gaussian intensity distribution instead of the square distribution of Fig. 16. The destructive interference of the pulse (a) and its slightly delayed and phaseshifted twin (b) results in two pulses separated by a thin band of darkness.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

The practical result of the experiment described in Fig. 17. The two light pulses are each of about half the length of the original pulse while their separation (the distance between their points of maximal intensity) is more than the difference in pathlengths.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Experimental set up to demonstrate multiple reflections in a Fabry Perot etalon. The circular etalon is placed at the far end of the observation screen (O of Fig. 1) seen to the right. The horizontal bright band is the studied reflected light. Far to the left is seen the holder of the hologram plate (H of Fig. 1) while the two black square surfaces represent the two mirrors E and D of Fig. 1.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Three of the reflections from the etalon at left are seen on the observation screen of Fig. 19. One single entering pulse has resulted in that at least three pulses leave the etalon which thus emits light long after being illuminated.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

The different reflected pulses will overlap to produce a continuous light if the spacing of the etalon is shorter than the entering pulse. Fringes are formed by interference of the different reflections. The reflected lightpulse is some four times longer than the entering single pulse. Thus, the etalon can be used to increase the pulse length or the coherence length of light.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

The propeller of an ordinary fan was used for our contouring experiment. It was made of pressed steel sheet and had become rather deformed and unsymmetric by hard handling. To simplify the recording the propeller was covered by retroreflective paint. During exposure it was, of course, not hand-held, but rigidly fixed.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

A schematic view of the holographic set up. The propeller (C) of Fig. 22 is illuminated by the divergent beam from the picosecond laser (A). The reference is reflected by the two mirrors (M1 and M2) towards the hologram plate (H). In the actual experiment the distance between H and C was much longer compared to the size of H and C than shown in this drawing.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

(a) This photo was during reconstruction exposed with the camera positioned at B1 which corresponds to the crossection S1 (Fig. 23). The sheet of light has just reached the hub of the propeller and two of its blades. (b) The camera at B2 of Fig. 23 produced the crossection S2. The hub has just passed out of the light into darkness while instead the four blades and their central joint are intersected. (c) The light sheet has passed the central joint and crossections of the blades reveal their three-dimensional shape. (d) The intersection S3 photographed with the camera at B3 shows how the light sheet has passed further on and soon will leave the propeller altogether.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

This photography is identical to that of Fig. 24 b, but with the exception that, when the reconstruction was recorded the aperture of the camera was increased from 11 to 4. In the latter case the lens covered a larger area of the hologram plate, which represents a larger time duration. Thus the originally short illumination pulse (some 3 picoseconds) appears enlarged to about 20 picoseconds.

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