Abstract

Recent experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) have shown that laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectral emissions from green terrestrial plants are detectable from a remote platform. A 3-MW peak power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm was used from an altitude of 150 m to induce fluorescence from trees, bushes, and grasses growing on a barrier island. A companion 422-nm XeCl excimer pumped dye laser with a controlled maximum output power of 100 kW was used separately on additional passes in order to compare its effectiveness over the same test area. Slant range measurements obtained simultaneously from each laser on-wavelength return pulse provided valuable, comparative elevational information on the heights of plants and variations in terrain along the flight lines. Samples of airborne LIF color spectra obtained with 532-nm excitation and cross sectional profiles are given together with supporting spectral measurements performed on selected plant types with a laboratory laser system. While the results to date are very encouraging, additional laboratory and field tests are required to establish the utility of the airborne LIF technique for measuring the distribution of plant pigments and biomass remotely from an airborne platform.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. McFarlane, R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, R. D. Jackson, W. L. Ehrler, P. J. Pinter, S. B. Idso, R. J. Reginato, Appl. Opt. 19, 3287 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. D. Watson, W. R. Hemphill, “Use of an Airborne FLD for Detection of Solar Stimulated Luminescence,” Preliminary Report 76202, U.S. Geological Survey (1976).
  3. J. A. Plascyk, Opt. Eng. 14, 339 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. J. Brach, B. Baum, Appl. Spectrosc. 29, 326 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).
  9. B. R. Baum, E. J. Brach, Can. J. Bot. 53, 305 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kiviniitty, U. Pitkanen, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23, 247 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).
  13. E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).
  14. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, B. B. Prezelin, Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 61 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).
  17. C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 472 (1979).
  18. H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 12, 1454 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 14, 3269 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll a and Other Organic Pigments,” in NASA Conference Publication 2188, NOAA/NEMP III 81-ABCDFG0042, Chesapeake Bay Plume Study (Superflux 1980), J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., Jan.1981.
  24. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).
  28. G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. F. Christman, E. T. Gjessing, Eds., Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Michigan, 1983).
  30. M. L. Wass, T. D. Wright, “Coastal Wetlands of Virginia,” Special Report of Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Number 10, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Va. (1968).
  31. W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.
  32. W. B. Krabill, C. F. Martin, “Analysis of Aircraft Vertical Positioning Accuracy Using a Single Accelerometer,” NASA Tech. Memo. 84417, Wallops Island, Va., Feb.1983.
  33. W. B. Krabill, F. E. Hoge, C. F. Martin, “Baseline Monitoring Using Aircraft Laser Ranging,” NASA Tech. Memo. 73298, Wallops Island, Va., June1982.
  34. Govindjee, R. Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
    [PubMed]
  35. E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., June1977.

1983 (3)

1982 (2)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).

1981 (3)

R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, B. B. Prezelin, Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

1979 (2)

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 472 (1979).

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (4)

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).

U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).

1976 (1)

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

1974 (2)

B. R. Baum, E. J. Brach, Can. J. Bot. 53, 305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Govindjee, R. Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

K. Kiviniitty, U. Pitkanen, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Armond, P. A.

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, B.

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, Appl. Spectrosc. 29, 326 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. R.

B. R. Baum, E. J. Brach, Can. J. Bot. 53, 305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beddard, G. S.

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brach, E. J.

E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, Appl. Spectrosc. 29, 326 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Baum, E. J. Brach, Can. J. Bot. 53, 305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., June1977.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Butler, M. L.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, D. K.

Collins, J. G.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.

Croix, L. J.

E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).

Ehrler, W. L.

Evans, R. H.

Fink, R.

U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, D. C.

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederick, E. B.

Gasman, B.

E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).

Gordon, H. R.

Govindjee,

Govindjee, R. Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Govindjee, R.

Govindjee, R. Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Hemphill, W. R.

R. D. Watson, W. R. Hemphill, “Use of an Airborne FLD for Detection of Solar Stimulated Luminescence,” Preliminary Report 76202, U.S. Geological Survey (1976).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 14, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll a and Other Organic Pigments,” in NASA Conference Publication 2188, NOAA/NEMP III 81-ABCDFG0042, Chesapeake Bay Plume Study (Superflux 1980), J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., Jan.1981.

W. B. Krabill, F. E. Hoge, C. F. Martin, “Baseline Monitoring Using Aircraft Laser Ranging,” NASA Tech. Memo. 73298, Wallops Island, Va., June1982.

Idso, S. B.

Jackson, R. D.

Jasmin, J. J.

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. H.

Kiviniitty, K.

K. Kiviniitty, U. Pitkanen, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyne, M. A.

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

Kollman, V. H.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krabill, W. B.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.

W. B. Krabill, F. E. Hoge, C. F. Martin, “Baseline Monitoring Using Aircraft Laser Ranging,” NASA Tech. Memo. 73298, Wallops Island, Va., June1982.

W. B. Krabill, C. F. Martin, “Analysis of Aircraft Vertical Positioning Accuracy Using a Single Accelerometer,” NASA Tech. Memo. 84417, Wallops Island, Va., Feb.1983.

Malkin, S.

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, C. F.

W. B. Krabill, C. F. Martin, “Analysis of Aircraft Vertical Positioning Accuracy Using a Single Accelerometer,” NASA Tech. Memo. 84417, Wallops Island, Va., Feb.1983.

W. B. Krabill, F. E. Hoge, C. F. Martin, “Baseline Monitoring Using Aircraft Laser Ranging,” NASA Tech. Memo. 73298, Wallops Island, Va., June1982.

McFarlane, J. C.

Menzel, D. W.

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Molnar, J. M.

E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, H. A.

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phan, T.

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

Pinter, P. J.

Pitkanen, U.

K. Kiviniitty, U. Pitkanen, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plascyk, J. A.

J. A. Plascyk, Opt. Eng. 14, 339 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, P.

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).

Porter, G.

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).

Prezelin, B. B.

R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, B. B. Prezelin, Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reginato, R. J.

Rosen, P.

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runeckles, V.

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, U.

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Searle, G. F. W.

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, S. L.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 14, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll a and Other Organic Pigments,” in NASA Conference Publication 2188, NOAA/NEMP III 81-ABCDFG0042, Chesapeake Bay Plume Study (Superflux 1980), J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., Jan.1981.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.

Synowiec, J. A.

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).

Theisen, A. F.

Tredwell, C. J.

G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).

Vidaver, W.

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wass, M. L.

M. L. Wass, T. D. Wright, “Coastal Wetlands of Virginia,” Special Report of Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Number 10, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Va. (1968).

Watson, R. D.

R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, B. B. Prezelin, Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. C. McFarlane, R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, R. D. Jackson, W. L. Ehrler, P. J. Pinter, S. B. Idso, R. J. Reginato, Appl. Opt. 19, 3287 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Watson, W. R. Hemphill, “Use of an Airborne FLD for Detection of Solar Stimulated Luminescence,” Preliminary Report 76202, U.S. Geological Survey (1976).

Wright, T. D.

M. L. Wass, T. D. Wright, “Coastal Wetlands of Virginia,” Special Report of Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Number 10, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Va. (1968).

Yentsch, C. M.

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 472 (1979).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 472 (1979).

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. (1)

K. Kiviniitty, U. Pitkanen, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2)

G. Porter, J. A. Synowiec, C. J. Tredwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 489, 329 (1977).

G. S. Beddard, G. R. Fleming, G. Porter, G. F. W. Searle, J. A. Synowiec, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Bot. (1)

B. R. Baum, E. J. Brach, Can. J. Bot. 53, 305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34 (1)

E. J. Brach, B. Baum, P. Poirier, IEEE International Electrical and Electronics Conference, Session 34, paper 77342 (1977).

Int. J. Remote Sensing (2)

R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, B. B. Prezelin, Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Agric. Eng. Res. (1)

E. J. Brach, J. M. Molnar, J. J. Jasmin, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 22, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Agron. Crop Sci. (1)

E. J. Brach, B. Gasman, L. J. Croix, Z. Acker Pflanzenbau (J. Agron. Crop Sci.) 151, 6 (1982).

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 472 (1979).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. A. Plascyk, Opt. Eng. 14, 339 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Plant Physiol. (2)

S. Malkin, P. A. Armond, H. A. Mooney, D. C. Fork, Plant Physiol. 67, 570 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, W. Vidaver, V. Runeckles, P. Rosen, Plant Physiol. 61, 80 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planta (1)

U. Schreiber, R. Fink, W. Vidaver, Planta 133, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

E. J. Brach, M. A. Klyne, T. Phan, J. J. Jasmin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 158, 156 (1978).

Sci. Am. (1)

Govindjee, R. Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., June1977.

R. F. Christman, E. T. Gjessing, Eds., Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Michigan, 1983).

M. L. Wass, T. D. Wright, “Coastal Wetlands of Virginia,” Special Report of Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering Number 10, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Va. (1968).

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results from Initial Joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Experiment,” NASA Tech. Mem. 73287, Wallops Island, Va., June1980.

W. B. Krabill, C. F. Martin, “Analysis of Aircraft Vertical Positioning Accuracy Using a Single Accelerometer,” NASA Tech. Memo. 84417, Wallops Island, Va., Feb.1983.

W. B. Krabill, F. E. Hoge, C. F. Martin, “Baseline Monitoring Using Aircraft Laser Ranging,” NASA Tech. Memo. 73298, Wallops Island, Va., June1982.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll a and Other Organic Pigments,” in NASA Conference Publication 2188, NOAA/NEMP III 81-ABCDFG0042, Chesapeake Bay Plume Study (Superflux 1980), J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., Jan.1981.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the laboratory LIF spectrometer. The laser used in the investigations was either (a) an excimer pumped dye operating at 422 nm or (2) a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG operating at 532 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) and 422-nm dye laser-induced fluorescence spectra of (a) dune grass, (b) loblolly pine needles, (c) black cherry, and (d) wax myrtle leaves. The blue excitation is a preferred wavelength since a borader and potentially more useful emission spectrum is produced.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) LIF spectrum of a Wallops Island fresh water pond sample using 422-nm excitation. The spectrum is dominated by the fluorescence from dissolved organic matter (DOM). A distilled water spectrum plotted for comparison reveals only the Raman scatter at 493 nm. (b) LIF spectrum of the same pond water using 532-nm excitation. The DOM fluorescence is so strong that the Raman scatter is virtually obscured.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of airborne 532-nm laser-induced fluorescence at (a) 730 and 685 nm and (b) 590 and 685 nra, (c) terrain elevation and on-wavelength laser backscatter (surface return). The 685-nm profile is repeated in (b) to facilitate comparison and to improve the overall clarity of the figure. Note that some of the low lying grasses and bushes yield fluorescence that is of the same approximate magnitude as sections of taller trees.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Individual, unaveraged LIF waveforms resulting from each single transmitted laser pulse during the water, beach, and marsh portions of the flight line shown in Fig. 4. (b) Waveforms from the marsh and bush/tree regions of the flight line are identified in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of terrain elevation and 422-nm LIF emission at 685 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profile of 422-nm LIF emission at 685 nm obtained across various targets of fields and trees. The terrain elevation is shown by the crosshatched profile. Note that some grass covered fields yield fluorescence levels whose magnitude is approximately the same as that from the stands of trees.

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