Abstract

Electrostatic electron lenses have been evaluated in terms of their image transfer characteristics. The effect of polychromatic radiation with different spectral energy distributions on the performance of an electron emitter–lens combination has been studied.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Needham, R. F. Thumwood, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28A, 129 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 16, 2127 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. P. Nijhawan, P. K. Datta, C. R. Sharma, Appl. Opt. 14, 509 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. MIL Specification for Image Intensifiers, MIL-I-55340(EL).
  5. I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 31, 534 (1970).
  6. A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).
  7. I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 33, 393 (1972).
  8. L. Levi, Appl. Opt. 8, 607 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Biberman, S. Nudelman, Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices (Plenum, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 54.
  10. E. A. Richards, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 665 (1969).
  11. W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 112 (1945).
  12. R. G. Reeves, A. Anson, D. Landen, Manual of Remote Sensing (American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington, D.C., 1975), p. 360.

1977 (1)

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 33, 393 (1972).

1970 (1)

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 31, 534 (1970).

1969 (4)

A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).

L. Levi, Appl. Opt. 8, 607 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Needham, R. F. Thumwood, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28A, 129 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Richards, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 665 (1969).

1945 (1)

W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 112 (1945).

Adams, E. Q.

W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 112 (1945).

Anson, A.

R. G. Reeves, A. Anson, D. Landen, Manual of Remote Sensing (American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington, D.C., 1975), p. 360.

Biberman, L. M.

L. M. Biberman, S. Nudelman, Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices (Plenum, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 54.

Csorba, I. P.

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 33, 393 (1972).

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 31, 534 (1970).

Datta, P. K.

Eberhardt, E. H.

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 112 (1945).

Lampost, D. L.

A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).

Landen, D.

R. G. Reeves, A. Anson, D. Landen, Manual of Remote Sensing (American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington, D.C., 1975), p. 360.

Levi, L.

Needham, M. J.

M. J. Needham, R. F. Thumwood, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28A, 129 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nijhawan, O. P.

Nudelman, S.

L. M. Biberman, S. Nudelman, Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices (Plenum, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 54.

Reeves, R. G.

R. G. Reeves, A. Anson, D. Landen, Manual of Remote Sensing (American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington, D.C., 1975), p. 360.

Richards, E. A.

E. A. Richards, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 665 (1969).

Sharma, C. R.

Stark, A. M.

A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).

Thumwood, R. F.

M. J. Needham, R. F. Thumwood, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28A, 129 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Woodhead, A. W.

A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).

Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. (3)

A. M. Stark, D. L. Lampost, A. W. Woodhead, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 570 (1969).

M. J. Needham, R. F. Thumwood, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28A, 129 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Richards, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 28B, 665 (1969).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 112 (1945).

RCA Rev. (2)

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 33, 393 (1972).

I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 31, 534 (1970).

Other (3)

MIL Specification for Image Intensifiers, MIL-I-55340(EL).

L. M. Biberman, S. Nudelman, Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices (Plenum, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 54.

R. G. Reeves, A. Anson, D. Landen, Manual of Remote Sensing (American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington, D.C., 1975), p. 360.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of detector response with wavelength in (a) tungsten 2870 K, (b) moonlight, (c) starlight, (d) phosphor P-20 (aluminized) irradiation conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of polychromatic MTF with spatial frequency: (a) moonlight, (b) starlight, (c) tungsten 2870 K, (d) P-20 aluminized phosphor, (e) 600-nm monochromatic.

Equations (9)

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Δ r = 2 M V i E sin θ cos θ ,
J 1 ( x ) = d N ( V i ) π θ ( x ) θ ( Δ r m ) sin 2 θ ( Δ r 2 x 2 ) ½ d θ .
d N ( V i ) = π 2 2 ( π 2 ) ( V i ) ( V m ) cos ( π 2 V i V m ) d ( V i V m ) .
V m = 1239.4 λ ( E A + E G ) ,
J 1 ( x ) = d N ( V i ) 4 E M V i .
J ( x ) = V i ( x ) V m J 1 ( x ) d ( V i V m ) = π E 4 ( π 2 ) V m M [ 1 sin ( π 2 E M V m x ) ] .
MTF = 0 Δ r m J ( x ) cos ( 2 π n x ) d x 0 Δ r m J ( x ) d x ,
Δ r m = M V m E , MTF ( n , λ ) = 0 Δ r m π 4 ( π 2 ) E M V m [ 1 sin ( π 2 E M V m x ) ] cos ( 2 π n x ) d x 0 Δ r m π 4 ( π 2 ) E M V m [ 1 sin ( π 2 E M V m x ) ] d x = sin k n 2 π n + 1 π ( 1 sin k n 4 n E / M V m 1 + sin k n 4 n + E / M V m ) M V m E ( 1 2 π ) ,
MTF ( n ) = S λ D λ MTF ( n , λ ) d λ S λ D λ d λ ,

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