Abstract

Utilization of a two-color airborne lidar system in the systematic study of a major oceanographic feature is reported here for the first time. An excimer pumped dye laser was optically and electronically integrated into the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar for simultaneous use with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The output beams exit the laser system along parallel paths after being produced on an alternating pulse basis at a combined rate of 12.5 pps. Results are presented for missions flown over a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring (WCR) as well as over shelf, slope, Gulf Stream, and Sargasso Sea waters. From the airborne data a high coherence is shown between the two-color chlorophyll a data and between the Nd:YAG chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin responses within each of these water masses. However, distinct differences in the response patterns of these photopigments are shown to exist between the differing water masses. At certain of the boundaries separating the water masses a sharp transition is seen to occur, while at others a wider transition zone was observed in which the correlation between the photopigments appears to degrade.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. (June1977).
  2. C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.
  3. O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.
  4. F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.
  5. O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).
  6. D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 63, No. 3, 60 (1982).
  8. R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).
  10. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1980).
  14. F. E. Govindjee, Rajni Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
    [PubMed]
  15. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (3)

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 63, No. 3, 60 (1982).

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (3)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (4)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1980).

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

1976 (1)

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

1974 (1)

F. E. Govindjee, Rajni Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Backus, R. H.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, S. H.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Bristow, M.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. (June1977).

Brown, C. A.

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

Bundy, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. W.

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

Carpenter, E. J.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Cox, J. L.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Esaias, W. E.

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

Farmer, F. H.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.

Flierl, G.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Flierl, G. R.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, E. B.

Furtek, R.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govindjee, F. E.

F. E. Govindjee, Rajni Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Govindjee, Rajni

F. E. Govindjee, Rajni Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Hoge, F.

F. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 63, No. 3, 60 (1982).

Hoge, F. E.

Houghton, W. J.

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

Hulbert, E. M.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Jahn, A. E.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Jarrett, O.

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

Joyce, T.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kester, D.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kester, D. R.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, G. P.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

McCarthy, J.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, D. B.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, P. B.

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Poole, L. R.

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

Pritchard, E. B.

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

Richardson, P. L.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schink, D.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Staton, W.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

Staton, W. L.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.

Swift, R. N.

F. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 63, No. 3, 60 (1982).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1980).

Vastano, A. C.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wiebe, P.

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wiebe, P. H.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

Wormuth, J.

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl Opt. (1)

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, Appl Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Deep Sea Res. (1)

P. H. Wiebe, E. M. Hulbert, E. J. Carpenter, A. E. Jahn, G. P. Knapp, S. H. Boyd, P. B. Ortner, J. L. Cox, Deep Sea Res. 23, 695 (1976).

EOS Trans. Geophys. Union (1)

D. Schink, J. McCarthy, T. Joyce, G. Flierl, P. Wiebe, D. Kester, EOS Trans. Geophys. Union 63, 834 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

F. E. Govindjee, Rajni Govindjee, Sci. Am. 231, No. 6, 68 (1974).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

R. H. Backus, G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, J. Wormuth, Science 212, 1091 (1981).
[CrossRef]

The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1)

O. Jarrett, W. E. Esaias, C. A. Brown, E. B. Pritchard, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceeding Document 2188 (1980).

The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1980).

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

F. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 63, No. 3, 60 (1982).

Other (4)

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA TN-D-8447, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. (June1977).

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 782–788.

O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, J. W. Campbell, W. J. Houghton, L. R. Poole, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 2, pp. 703–710.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), Vol. 3, pp. 1793–1805.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Airborne Oceanographic Lidar system as configured for the Warm Core Ring flight missions. The excimer pumped dye laser occupies the fourth or topmost tier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the lidar system electronics and data acquisition subsystem.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Location of the Warm Core Ring 82-B at the time of the experiment. Broken lines describe the approximate position of the Gulf Stream. The single solid track line toward the SE across Ring 81-F and the Gulf Stream shows the single flight mission into the Sargasso Sea.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aircraft flight lines executed over Ring 82-B during the field experiment. The circular type arcs at the end of some flight lines show the aircraft orbit used to insure the reception of the AXBT transmitter signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Airborne data obtained by the AOL: (a) chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence obtained with excitation from a 532-nm Nd:YAG laser; (b) Raman backscatter; (c) surface temperature obtained remotely with the PRT-5 infrared radiometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time series profile of chlorophyll a fluorescence as induced by laser excitation at 532 and 427 nm, respectively. The fluorescence values have been normalized by the water Raman backscatter at 645 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence obtained during the transit along flight line 12 shown in Fig. 4. (b) Water Raman backscatter. (c) Surface temperature as measured by PRT-5 infrared radiometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatter diagram of the chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence occurring within several discrete sections of flight line 12. The portions labeled A through E correspond to those regions of the flight line marked on Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Contour plot of the relative chlorophyll a fluorescence in NE section of the Warm Core Ring boundary, (b) Contour plot of the phycoerythrin fluorescence in the NE section of the Warm-Core Ring boundary.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) These data show a profile of the relative chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence from 532-nm excitation along a single flight line into the Sargasso Sea. The location of the flight line is shown in Fig. 3. (b) The laser-induced water Raman backscatter and (c) the sea surface temperature measured simultaneously.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Chlorophyll a fluorescence as induced by the 532- and 427-nm lasers during the single flight line into the Sargasso Sea.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Scatter diagrams of the phycoerythrin and chlorophyll a fluorescence resulting only from the 532-nm excitation, (b) Scatter diagram of the chlorophyll a fluorescence as induced by the 427- and 532-nm lasers, respectively.

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